JULIAN OF NORWICH, HER SHOWING OF LOVE AND ITS CONTEXTS ©1997-2017 JULIA BOLTON HOLLOWAY  || JULIAN OF NORWICH  || SHOWING OF LOVE || HER TEXTS || HER SELF || ABOUT HER TEXTS || BEFORE JULIAN || HER CONTEMPORARIES || AFTER JULIAN || JULIAN IN OUR TIME ||  ST BIRGITTA OF SWEDEN  ||  BIBLE AND WOMEN || EQUALLY IN GOD'S IMAGE  || MIRROR OF SAINTS || BENEDICTINISM|| THE CLOISTER || ITS SCRIPTORIUM  || AMHERST MANUSCRIPT || PRAYER|| CATALOGUE AND PORTFOLIO (HANDCRAFTS, BOOKS ) || BOOK REVIEWS || BIBLIOGRAPHY || Power Point presentation for this lecture can be downloaded from http://www.umilta.net/JULIANDOMINICANS.ppt


*1 JULIAN AMONG THE DOMINICANS





                                                                                                               



They always begin, the entries in encyclopaedias, essays and books, on and off the web, by saying that 'Very little is known about Julian of Norwich'. I don't believe that is true. I have been finding that she is at the centre of many facets and that one can explore one, then another, each one in turn, and that each helps the other to deepen what we know of Julian herself.

*2 To look at Julian through the Benedictine perspective is to find that in the hazel nut in her hand passage she is quoting directly from St Gregory on St Benedict in prayer where Gregory describes how the whole universe shrinks into one ray of sunlight - because St Benedict while in prayer is in the presence of its Creator - who loves and keeps the Creation but which seems small when in God's presence. From the Benedictine echoes in her Showing of Love, I can sense that she probably was a novice at Benedictine Carrow Priory before becoming an anchoress.

*3 *4 To look at Julian through the pages of the Hebrew Torah is to find she is quoting directly from it, translating directly from it, into Middle English, before the King James Bible. From this I can deduce that she was probably from a conversa family in Norwich, perhaps her brother being Adam Easton, the Norwich Benedictine who taught Hebrew at Oxford and who became the Cardinal who defended Birgitta of Sweden's canonization as saint. *5 Norwich was the second largest city in England in Julian's day, walled about with flint, having the Castle and the Cathedral at its centre. *6 *7 Its medieval Jewry huddled about the Castle for royal protection. *8 But by the river Wensum are the great Dragon House and also *9 *10 Isaac's House, both of which are still standing, Isaac's House being built by Isaac Jurnet, the Jew of Norwich, and close by is * 11 *12 St Julian's Church, which was under the Benedictine Carrow Priory and its Prioress and nuns, who in turn were under the Norwich Benedictine Priory's Prior and monks. We find the same stonemason's marks at Norwich Priory, in Isaac's House and at Carrow Priory. It was the Jews' money that built the great Romanesque Norwich Cathedral until King John expelled all those who did not convert to Christianity. Norwich's Jewry was second in England only to York's and was noted for its great scholarship and wealth and that its women were highly literate where the Christian women were not.

To look at Julian through the Carmelite perspective is to find that 'All shall be well' translates the Shalom * 13 of the story of Elisha and the Shunamite woman with her dead child and that its sarcasm turns into the joy of the resurrection, Carmelites claiming descent from Elijah and Elisha on Mount Carmel. I believe a major manuscript containing her work, the Amherst Manuscript in the British Library in London, was produced for the Norwich Carmelite Anchoress, Dame Emma Stapleton, daughter of *14 Sir Miles Stapleton who executed the Will of Isabella Ufford, Countess of Suffolk, Will in which Julian was left 'xxs'.

But now we need a study of Julian and the Dominicans. So I am very grateful to the Blauvelt Free Library, Dominican College and the Sisters of St Dominic, and especially to Professor John Lounibos with whom for years I have shared Julian and her Judaism, because you have all given me this opportunity to carry out research on the Dominican context to Julian of Norwich. In particular I am delighted that this study leads us to other women who were her models and her followers. St Dominic founded his Order to fight against heresy. One thinks immediately of the Inquisition and its quasi-genocidal severity in Spain and in Provence. But another side of the Order is Marian, inclusive and compassionate. (I joy in living in the city of the great Dominican prior and painter, Fra Angelico.) In the north, in the Rhineland, in Switzerland, and in Belgium, a movement formed among the Dominicans called the 'Friends of God' which particularly came about where Dominican friars were charged with preaching to Dominican nuns and to other holy women, known as Beguines, living in communities. *15 The Dominican Meister Eckhardt was influenced by the Benedictine Hildegard of Bingen who wrote and illuminated great mystical works and who preached sermons. He was also influenced by the Beguine Marguerite Porete whose Mirror of Simple Souls was condemned and burnt in her presence at Valenciennes, she herself then being condemned and burnt in 1310 in Paris at its university of the Sorbonne where theology had now come to be officially taught to and by men only, instead of in monasteries where both monks and nuns had studied and wrote holy books.

Meister Eckhardt was in trouble with his own Order's Inquisition. The Dominican John Tauler similarly had problems with the authorities of their Order. The Swiss Dominican Henry Suso was very severely restricted by the Order's Inquisition. A colleague, not himself a Dominican but who became an Augustinian was the Belgian Jan van Ruusbroec. Jean Gerson, Chancellor of the Unviersity of Paris, particularly railed against Ruusbroec's contemplative theology, as well as against Marguerite Porete. These men were spiritual directors to women, who ranged in status from being queens to being beguines.

Eckhart and Tauler are magnificent contemplative theologians but the two Friends of God who are my favourites are Henry Suso and Jan van Ruusbroec, perhaps because some of their writings, along with Marguerite Porete's Mirror of Simple Souls, all translated into Middle English, appear in the same manuscript with the Short Text of Julian of Norwich's Showing of Love. *16 Henry Suso was a disturbed young man, given to excessive practices, including carving the name of Jesus on his breast and other forms of self-harming. He told his story to the Dominican nun, Elsbeth Stagel, who functioned as his psychiatrist and spiritual director, she writing his autobiography unknown to him. She died but Henry Suso continued to celebrate her memory, writing the best-seller, the Horologium Sapientiae, the Clock of Wisdom, the Computer of Wisdom, a marvellous compendium of contemplative theology written in dialogue form in which Elsbeth is as if his Beatrice to a Dante. He illustrated it as well. It became his therapy. Here we see him in the manuscript he created, now preserved at Einsiedeln's Benedictine Abbey, where Christ as Wisdom shelters under his fur-lined cloak Henry Suso and Elsbeth Stagel in their Dominican black and white while Dominican nuns and monks and lay people marvel at them. *17 And here we see Father Odo Lang, OSB, the curator of this manuscript at Einseideln in Switzerland who gave me the photograph of that page in exchange for my giving him a copy of my edition of the Julian of Norwich manuscripts. That abbey also possesses the work of Mechtild of Magdebourg, a beguine who came to Cistercian Helfta and who wrote most splendid mystical theology, apart from Julian, she and Angela of Foligno being my favourites.

Julian is clearly influenced by Suso's use of Christ as Wisdom, who is in the Hebrew Scriptures feminine, God's daughter rather than his son, and likewise this image of the Virgin's cloak which enfolds us all, becoming now Jesus' cloak doing the same. Such a fur-lined cloak was particularly the garb of medieval doctors and evokes as well the image of Jesus as Saviour, in Latin 'salus noster', 'salus' meaning health. Both Suso, prompted by Elsbeth, and Julian write books that are their logotherapy, that heal them. And here I draw on St Teresa of Avila's Autobiography Written by Herself and Frederick Douglass' Autobiography of an Ex-Slave Written by Himself and Viktor Frankl's concept of logotherapy, thrashed out at Auschwitz, in Man's Search for Meaning and Doctor of the Soul. These are Physicians who heal themselves through their books that in turn heal us.

*18 Jan van Ruusbroec had a comfortable post as canon in the cathedral in Brussels but gave it all up to live as a hermit at Groendendaal and there write mystical theology under the trees, being quickly joined by disciples. One of his works, The Sparkling Stone, is in Julian's Amherst Manuscript and I have transcribed its Middle English text publishing it on the web. Because of it I one day received an e-mail from China. Something told me not to zap it. It was from Sheri Liao Xiaoyi, President of China's Global Village. As an ecologist she had decided it was crucial to combine being 'Green' with spirituality and so wanted to learn about Jan van Ruusbroec that she and her teen-age daughter actually came to Florence, and then journeyed on to Brussels and Groenendaal to study about him. So these medieval Dominican-inspired writings of the 'Friends of God' continue to influence our global village.


*19 In particular the Dominican 'Friends of God' were deeply concerned about the need for peace in Europe at a time when Popes and Anti-Popes and Emperors and Kings were slugging it out with bloodshed. I love one story of them where they come to the Pope pleading for peace and gain entry by the presentation to him of a large Swiss clock. Today it would be a computer. This is why I have enjoyed celebrating the 'Friends of God' movement on the computer, on the web. Reaching even Sheri in Beijing.

*20 Birgitta of Sweden was the daughter of King Magnus's Lawman Birger Persson, who was herself married to another Lawman against her will, though she had wanted to remain virgin, and she bore her husband eight children. *21 Her initial spiritual directors were Bishop Hemming of Ǻbo in Finland and Magister Mathias who had studied with the Dominicans in Paris, and also under the misogynist Franciscan Nicholas of Lyra who commented on the Hebrew Bible, and he would have lived together with the Dominicans Meister Eckhardt and with William Humbert, their Grand Inquisitor who prosecuted and judged Marguerite Porete, condemning her to death. However, Magister Mathias had read the work of Cardinal Jacques de Vitry praising the spirituality of the beguine Marie d'Oignies and readily took on the task of educating Birgitta in theology despite his own grave theological doubts. He carefully translated for her the Hebrew Bible into Swedish. Birgitta while raising her eight children also began writing great books of theology, her first book echoing his translation, *22 and among these books was Book V of her Revelations in which she answers each of Magister Mathias' doubts in turn.

She and her spiritual directors sought the peace of Europe, especially from the Hundred Years' War between England and France and they sent an embassy with her first Book of the Revelations to the Pope, the Emperor and the Kings of those lands. The King of Sweden gave her his castle of Vadstena beside a most beautiful lake to be her abbey when she prophesied truly that Christ would come as Ploughman and plough under Sweden with the Black Death (Ingmar Bergman's Film The Seventh Seal is about her and this). Her husband died following their pilgrimage to Compostela, she having a great vision of St Denis in Arras. But it became too dangerous for her remaining family to stay in Sweden and they journeyed to Rome, their household now containing Petrus Olavi (Olavsson) the Cistercian prior of Alvastra and Magister Petrus Olavi of Linkoping, the one a Cistercian in white, the other a canon in black. Soon the Spanish Bishop Hermit, whose parents had come from Siena, Alfonso of Jaén, would join them. Alfonso's brother Petrus, would found the Hieronymite Order in Siena to which, later, *23 Sor Juana de la Cruz in Mexico City would belong. *24 *25 There Birgitta and her curia were successful in bringing together the Pope and Emperor in Rome, the one journeying from Avignon, the other from Prague. Her Book IV of her Revelations particularly stresses the lovely Dominican phrase 'Friend of God', 'amicus dei' over and over again. *26 Birgitta used to beg for her household and mend the other beggars' clothing sitting outside the church of San Lorenzo in Panisperna in Roma in a ragged cloak to have enough money for her household and for the writing and copying of her manuscript books to be given to kings and emperors and popes and bishops all over Europe and which are still to be found in all the great libraries there. Poland's solidarity began in her church in Poland so it is no wonder that Pope John Paul II had her declared Patron of Europe.

In her Revelations IV she tells of her powerful influence upon Niccolo Acciaiuoli, the Florentine Seneschal of Naples who built Florence's Certosa with his ill-gotten gains, in which she sees a vision of him and its Carthusian monks praying for his soul all gathered under the Virgin's cloak. Throughout Revelations IV the term is used, 'Friend of God', 'amicus dei'. Thus we can see that Birgitta is profoundly influenced by the Dominicans, in particular by the Dominican 'Friends of God' through her Magister Mathias, who was to be buried in Stockholm's Dominican cemetery. That influence is particularly celebrated, as we shall see, in Florence's Santa Maria Novella Dominican church where Birgitta is frescoed twice. *27 Birgitta had already had many visions. *28 *29 Now in her seventieth year she journeyed to Jerusalem and *30 Bethlehem, having great visions there which echo those St Jerome described St Paula had had a thousand years earlier in those places. *31 In particular her vision of the Virgin giving birth in the cave in Bethlehem is of great interest. Julian in turn will echo it and the opening of Marguerite Porete's Mirror of Simple Souls, all three analogizing their writing of books to the gestating of the Word, the Advent Great 'O' Antiphon, 'O Sapientia', sung by the Virgin to her as-yet-unborn Child becoming flesh in our midst. *32 In this series of panels we see the life of St Birgitta, her earliest vision, where Christ tells her 'You shall be my Bride', the second a vision of her crowned by the Holy Spirit with not the three crowns of the Pope but the seven crowns of the Spirit, the third where Christ and the Virgin dictate to her what to write to all the rulers and ruled of Europe, the last where Christ comes to her in her room in Rome to tell her when she will die, a room Margery Kempe from Lynn will visit when copying Birgitta's pilgrimages and books.

*33 Already Catherine of Siena had been depicted in the Spanish Chapel 'Via Veritatis' fresco in the Dominican church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence. Next, the Dominican Inquisition tried her there and gave her as spiritual director the head of the Order, Raymond of Capua. The Pope also awarded her the now dead Birgitta's spiritual director, the Hermit Bishop Alfonso of Jaén. *34 Immediately, illiterate Catherine of Siena began writing or dictating letters to heads of state and major figures, as well as composing her own magnificent book the Revelations or Dialogues of Divine Providence. Just as Elisha inherited Elijah's mantle of prophecy so did Catherine of Siena inherit Birgitta's mantle. Like Birgitta she brought the Pope back from Avignon. Then collapsed under the weight of the Church in her struggle to support the impossible Urban VI. In that task she also worked with Birgitta's daughter, the very beautiful Catherine of Sweden who became the first Abbess of Vadstena. Catherine of Siena had another and most important spiritual director, confessor and finally executor, the Englishman William Flete, who himself came from Julian of Norwich's East Anglia to be an Augustinian Hermit at Lecceto near Siena. We find William Flete's Remedies Against Temptations being quoted word for word in Julian of Norwich's Showing of Love. *35 Following St Catherine of Siena's death we find that her cenacolo in Siena still continued to function at Santa Maria della Scala, her secretery Cristofano di Gano now overseeing the complete translation into Tuscan Italian of St Birgitta of Sweden's Latin Revelations and having it be beautifully illuminated before their departure on pilgrimage to the Holy Land. *36 While at Brigittine Syon Abbey a manuscript found there of the Dialogues translated into Middle English (perhaps by Adam Easton) is printed by Wynken de Worde as The Orcherd of Syon.

But how could Julian of Norwich have come by the texts of Catherine of Siena and William Flete and Birgitta of Sweden and Marguerite Porete and Henry Suso and Jan van Ruusbroec? I was fortunate in coming to Julian obliquely, not head on. When I first read Julian I wasn't Catholic and I was put off by the flowing bloodshed she presents at her deathbed vision. Instead I worked on Dante and Dante's teacher, going from European library to great European library. Next, because I had written my dissertation and then a book on pilgrimage, Professor Jane Chance asked me to research Birgitta of Sweden. And I found myself with a Eurailpass going to the same libraries, the first to look at great European books written by men and presented as political, diplomatic books, the second going to the same libraries and now examining a political, theological book, an enormous book, written by a woman and her household of ecclesiastical scribes. And I kept finding connections between not only Birgitta of Sweden and Catherine of Siena, but also in the same manuscripts connections between them and Julian of Norwich, especially in the Amherst Manuscript which contains so many of their writings. So I next decided I must research and edit Julian's manuscripts in their rich European context rather than in the poverty of her provincial English one. And that was when, sitting in the Vatican Library, I discovered Adam Easton, the Norwich Benedictine scholar Cardinal, so proficient in Hebrew that he not only corrected Jerome's Bible, he translated the entire Hebrew Bible afresh into Latin, a translation that, alas, has not survived. And not only was he a magnificent Hebrew scholar,
*37 but I found when sitting in the Cambridge Univesity Library that he also treasured a splendid thirteenth-century manuscript in Greek and Latin from the Abbey of St Victor containing all Pseudo-Dionysius' writings, and which has this magnificent Gothic letter T as the invocation to the Trinity. *38 *39 We recall that Julian's manuscripts go out of their way to begin with the Gothic letter T. I might add that the Norwich Castle Manuscript, which I believe is in Julian's hand, gives much material from the Hebrew.

Adam's story is horrific. A brilliant scholar at Oxford, he was called back by the Prior of Norwich Cathedral to preach in Norwich against the Franciscans, called the Grey Friars, the Dominicans, the Black Friars, the Carmelites, the White Friars. and the Augustinians, the Austin Friars, the mendicant friars who had become a threat to the wealthy, powerful Benedictines because of their espousal of Gospel poverty. Next Adam worked in the Curia at Avignon for Pope Urban V amidst all of that corruption. The succeeding Pope, Urban VI, struggled to undo that corruption but went mad, believing the Cardinals were conspiring against him. Adam Easton, Birgitta of Sweden, Catherine of Siena and Catherine of Sweden all supported him, Adam writing the brilliant Defensorium Ecclesiastice Potestatis, which is filled with references to Aaron's High Priesthood from the Hebrew Scriptures, and likewise with Pseudo-Dionysius' hierarchies from the Greek. It was for this work Urban VI made him Cardinal of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere. *40 He also had him arrange the Coronation and Wedding of King Richard II of England to Queen Anne of Bohemia, daughter of the same Emperor Charles of Bohemia whom Birgitta and Catherine had meet the Pope in Rome. But Urban VI then threw Adam Easton and five other Cardinals into prison, torturing them unmercifully, having them hung in cages with serpents and rats. He next fled with his chained prisoners to Genoa. Only Adam survived, all the other Cardinals being executed and buried secretly in their dungeon. This was because the King of England, Richard II, Parliament, Oxford University and the English Benedictine Congregation had all written letters asking that Adam's life be spared, that he be shown mercy by the Pope as had the Good Samaritan shown mercy to the wounded traveller. In that loathsome dungeon he had prayed that if his life was spared he would work for St Birgitta's canonization. Urban VI kept him under house arrest. The next Pope freed him and he came home to Norwich to write the Defensorium Sanctae Birgittae with her Revelations at hand at exactly the time that Julian was forming her Long Text which likewise quotes from Birgitta's Revelations. In his Defence of Birgitta he argues against the Perugian Devil's Argument who claimed women could not have prophetic visions or study theology, by noting that Huldah initiated Torah study, that Philip's Four Daughters prophesied, and that St Cecilia preached for three days while dying. *41 He returned to Rome and died at Santa Cecilia in Trastevere being buried there in a magnificent tomb that reminds one of that for the Black Prince in Canterbury by St Thomas Becket's side. *42 Both the bodies of St Cecilia and Adam Easton in Trastevere were found to be incorrupt. *43 When Julian wrote of St Cecilia in the 1413 Short Text to justify her writing the Showing of Love she has the manuscript carefully emphasize that name as if calling attention to the now dead Cardinal of England who would have been her protector.

Many theological manuscripts in England were destroyed at the Reformation. What we know is that Adam wrote treatises in Middle English of spiritual direction. I believe that these are the cluster of texts of the Cloud of Unknowing author using Pseudo-Dionysius and that these brilliant texts are written to Julian, who may be his sister. We know also that he translated the entire Hebrew Bible. What has survived is the Defensorium Ecclesiastice Potestatis, the Defensorium Sanctae Birgittae and the Office of the Visitation. Just as Magister Mathias, Bishop Hemming and Bishop Hermit Alfonso of Jaén helped edit Birgitta's Revelations so, I believe, did Cardinal Adam Easton help to edit Julian of Norwich's Showing. There was the precedent of Cardinal Jacques de Vitry writing of Marie d'Oignes, *44 and earlier of Jerome working with the noble Roman mother and daughter, Saints Paula and Eustochium, who learned Hebrew, already having Latin and Greek, and who funded the translation as well as assisting St Jerome with the Vulgate. Manuscripts at the Brigittine Syon Abbey founded in London by Henry V clearly make that parallel while, at the same time, treasuring manuscripts by Birgitta of Sweden, Catherine of Siena, Adam Easton and Julian of Norwich.

One can glimpse parallels between Adam Easton's punishment and Julian of Norwich's Parable of the Lord and the Servant who is first Adam, then Christ, in her Showing of Love. Particularly in the way both writers use the image of God the Father and God the Son sitting side by side, an image and concept echoed also in The Cloud of Unknowing. Adam Easton owned the Sepher Horashim of Rabbi David Kimhi in Hebrew and carefully annotated it. Kimhi specifically taught that the image of Psalm 100 is not to be taken literally but as meaning 'favoured' rather than actual 'sitting at the right hand'. Julian, Adam and the Cloud Author make exactly the same observation. *45 One can also glimpse parallels between Julian's imagery of the Lord in his blue cloak seated on the ground (which echoes Simone Martini's fresco in Avignon for the Cardinal Stefaneschi of the Madonna in her Humility seated on the ground) and the Servant in first his ragged garb as a labourer, then clad in rainbow hued robes and these images for the Coronation Wedding of Richard II and Anne of Bohemia and of the Flemish manuscript showing God the Father and God the Son.

argery Kempe visited Julian of Norwich in the year that she was composing the Amherst Manuscript Short Text version of the Showing of Love.
And in which we have reported verbatim the many days of conversation between them. That text is like having a tape recorder in Norwich and Lynn and for that reason I have recorded it in MP3 for the web. *46 I believe it was Julian who encouraged illiterate disturbed Margery as her logotherapy to perform all of St Birgitta's pilgrimages,  to visit the room in Rome where Birgitta had died, and to write a book about them. Which she did. All of these women and men held that visions were inspired by the Holy Spirit only if they were in charity with God and neighbour. That had been Adam Easton's argument for the validity of St Birgitta's prophetic visions in her Revelations, a passage Julian repeats in the Showing and in her conversation with Margery. Above all, these women and men seek and teach the love of God and neighbour.

Thus we see that the strands of the tapestries of Julian, of Catherine, of Birgitta, are multiple and involve the Benedictine, Cistercian, Franciscan, Dominican, Augustinian, Carmelite, Carthusian, even the now extinct Hieronymite Orders, in their varying garb, black, white, grey, and especially the 'Domini cani', the 'dogs of the Lord' in their black and white. Indeed, it was excellent strategy that these women were able to communicate to these separate structures within the Unity of Christendom, setting in motion again the love of the Gospel and its equality between women and men. It is as if women like Hulda and Anna, Helena nd Egeria, Paula and Eustochium, Guthrithyr and Birgitta, Catherine, Julian and Margery, with their prophecies and their pilgrimages created a ripple effect that continues through time, reaching even us with the message that women also are Word Bearers. They may prophesy, they may write, they may journey on pilgrimage, Bible in hand. A setting in motion of gears and escapements, not unlike Henry Suso's great 'Clock of Wisdom', a very friendly clock ticking away the hours and years and centuries, even inspiring the Quakers who call themselves the Society of Friends, even reaching to our own time with Solidarity undoing Communism in the Iron Curtain Countries. In all this the existing structure
of the 'Friends of God' among the Dominicans of northern Europe, inspired by women such as Hildegard of Bingen and Marguerite Porete, of men like Meister Eckhardt who ministered to women as much as the women like Elsbeth Stagel ministered in turn to them, was crucial and their 'Sacred Conversation' now reached beyond just the Rhineland, to Sweden, to Italy, to Poland and to England. As bibliographer of Julian I find she is now translated into German, by Gerhart Teerstegen and Martin Buber, into French, into Spanish, into Danish, into Norwegian, into Swedish, into Italian, into Russian, into Serbian. Her centuries of being silenced, like those of Meister Eckhardt, are now ended and she, Joan of Arc and Catherine of Siena, in their own voices, have entered the Catechism of the Catholic Church; she is being shared and shown to all her even-Christians, Protestant, Catholic, Greek and Russian Orthodox, and beyond. *47


For citations to sources see the following:

http://www.umilta.net
http://www.umilta.net/anchor.html
http://www.umilta.net/amherst.html
http://www.umilta.net/judaism.html

http://www.umilta.net/midrash.html
http://www.umilta.net/valour.html
http://www.umilta.net/buber.html
http://www.umilta.net/mystics.html
http://www.umilta.net/godfrien.html
http://www.umilta.net/sparklin.html
http://www.umilta.net/birgitta.html

http://www.umilta.net/cathersiena.html
http://www.umilta.net/orcherd.html
http://www.umilta.net/flete.html
http://www.umilta.net/julian.html
http://www.umilta.net/westmins.html also on mp3, /1Julian.mp3-/4Julian.mp3

http://www.umilta.net/Julianonprayer.html
http://www,umilta.net/LordServant.mp3
http://www.umilta.net/soulcity.html
http://www.umilta.net/soulcity.mp3
http://www.umilta.net/chuppa.html

Julia Bolton Holloway. Julian among the Books: Julian of Norwich's Theological Library. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2016.

Julia Bolton Holloway. Anchoress and Cardinal: Julian of Norwich and Adam Easton OSB. Salzburg: Analecta Cartusiana, 2008.

Julian of Norwich. Showing of Love. Trans. Julia Bolton Holloway. Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 2003.
 
Julian of Norwich. Showing of Love. Ed. Sister Anna Maria Reynolds, C.P. and Julia Bolton Holloway. Florence: SISMEL, 2001.

Birgitta of Sweden. Saint Bride and her Book: Birgitta of Sweden's Revelations. Ed. and Trans. Julia Bolton Holloway. Cambridge: Brewer, 2000.


Highly recommended is Erika Lauren Lindgren, Sensual Encounters: Monastic Women and Spirituality in Medieval Germany, at Project Gutenberg: http://www.gutenberg-e.org/lindgren/



JULIAN OF NORWICH, HER SHOWING OF LOVE AND ITS CONTEXTS ©1997-2017 JULIA BOLTON HOLLOWAY  || JULIAN OF NORWICH  || SHOWING OF LOVE || HER TEXTS || HER SELF || ABOUT HER TEXTS || BEFORE JULIAN || HER CONTEMPORARIES || AFTER JULIAN || JULIAN IN OUR TIME ||  ST BIRGITTA OF SWEDEN  ||  BIBLE AND WOMEN || EQUALLY IN GOD'S IMAGE  || MIRROR OF SAINTS || BENEDICTINISM|| THE CLOISTER || ITS SCRIPTORIUM  || AMHERST MANUSCRIPT || PRAYER|| CATALOGUE AND PORTFOLIO (HANDCRAFTS, BOOKS ) || BOOK REVIEWS || BIBLIOGRAPHY ||