if Julian is narrating a political allegory about Cardinal Adam Easton, Benedictine from Norwich, unjustly imprisoned and tortured by Pope Urban VI, gone mad, whose election was supported by Adam Easton, OSB, by Catherine of Siena, by Catherine of Sweden, by Bishop Hermit Alfonso Pecha of Jaèn. See Anchoress and Cardinal.

/S/ ♫ or The answer to the previous doubt by a marvelous Parable of a Lord and a servant. And God will be waited for, for it was twenty years after before she fully understood this example. And how it is understood that Christ sits on the right hand of the Father./SP/ The Fifty-First Chapter.
And then our Courteous Lord answered in showing full mistily a wonderful parable of a Lord who has a servant, and gave me sight to my understanding of both. Which sight was showed double in the Lord. And the sight was showed double in the servant. Then one part was showed ghostly in bodily likeness. And the other part was showed more ghostly, without bodily likeness. For the first thus I saw two persons in bodily likeness, that is to say a Lord and a servant. And therewith God gave me ghostly understanding. The Lord sits solemnly in rest, and in peace. The servant stands before his Lord reverently ready to do his Lord's will. The Lord looks upon his servant full lovely and sweetly and meekly. He sends him to a certain place to do his will. The servant, not only he goes, but suddenly he starts and runs in great haste, for love to do his Lord's will, and immediately he falls into an abyss. And takes full great sore. And then he groans and moans and /S/ wails /P/ wallows /SP/ and writhes, but he may not rise nor help himself in any way. And of all this the most mischief that I saw him in, was failing of comfort, for he could not turn his face to look up on his loving Lord, who was to him full near, in whom is full comfort, but as a man who was feeble and unwise. For the time he attended to his feeling, and endured in woe. In which woe he suffered seven great pains. The first was the sore bruising that he took in his falling, which was to him /S/ feelable /P/ much /SP/ pain. The second was the heaviness of his body. The third was feebleness following of these two. The fourth that he was blinded in his reason and shattered in his mind so much that he had almost forgotten his own love. The fifth was that he might not rise. The sixth was /P/ pain /SP/ most marvelous to me and that was that he lay alone. I looked all about and beheld, and far nor near, high nor low, I saw for him no help. The seventh was that the place which he lay on, was long, hard and grievous. I marveled how this servant might meekly suffer there all this woe. And I beheld attentively to know if I could perceive in him any fault, or if the Lord should assign in him any blame. And truly there was none seen. For only his good will and his great desire was cause of his falling. And he was as unloathsome and as good inwardly, as when he stood before his Lord, ready to do his will. And right thus continually his loving Lord full tenderly beholds him. And now with a double cheer, one outward, full meekly and mildly with/

great ruth and pity. And this was of the first. Another inward more ghostly and this was showed with a leading of my understanding into the Lord /P/ in restoring /SP/ which I saw him highly enjoying. For the worshipful resting and nobleness that he will and shall bring his servant to by his plenteous grace. And this was of that other Showing. And now my understanding led again into the first, keeping both in mind. Then says this courteous Lord in his meaning, 'Lo, lo, my loved servant, what harm and disease he has taken in my service for my love. Yea, and for his good will. Is it not /S/wise /P/ reason /SP/ that I reward him for his fear and his dread, his hurt and his maiming and all his woe. And not only this but falls it not to me to give a gift that be better to him and more worshipful than his own wholeness should have been and else I would think I did him no grace'. And in this an inward ghostly showing of the Lord's meaning descended into my soul. In which I saw that it needs must be, given his great and his own worship, that his dearworthy servant whom he loved so much should be /S/ truly /P/ highly /SP/ and blissfully rewarded without end, above what he should have been if he had not fallen. Yea, and so much that his falling and /P/ all /SP/ his woe that he has taken thereby, shall be turned to high and overpassing worship and endless bliss. And at this point the Showing of the example vanished and our good Lord led forth my understanding in sight and in Showing of the Revelation to the end. But notwithstanding all this forthleading, the marveling of the example /S/ came /P/ went /SP/ never from me. For I thought it was given to me for an answer to my desire. And yet could I not take therein full understanding to my ease at that time. For in the servant that was showed for Adam as I shall say, I saw many diverse properties that might by no manner be right to the one Adam. And thus in that time I stood much in /S/ unknowing /P/ three knowings. /SP/ For the full understanding of this marvelous example was not given me in that time. In which misty example /S/ three properties /P/ the privities /SP/ of the revelation be yet much hidden. And notwithstanding this I saw and understood that every Showing is full of privities. And therefore I must now needs tell of three properties in which I am somewhat eased. The first is the beginning of teaching that I understood therein at the same time. The second is the inward learning that I have understood therein since. The third is /P/ all /SP/ the whole Revelation from the beginning to the end, /S/ that is to say of this book, /SP/ which our Lord God of his goodness brings oftentimes freely to the sight of my understanding. And these three are so oned as to my understanding that I cannot nor may separate them. And by these three as one I have teaching whereby I/

ought to believe and trust in our Lord God, who of the same goodness that he showed it and for the same end, right so of the same goodness and for the same end he shall declare it to us when it is his will.For /S/ fifteen /P/ twenty /SP/ years after the time of the Showing save three months I had teaching inwardly, as I shall say. It belongs to you to take heed of all the properties and condition that were showed in the example although you think that they be misty and indifferent to your sight. I assented willingly, with great desire /S/ and /P/ seeing /SP/ inwardly with advisement, all the points and properties that were showed in the same time, as much as my wit and understanding would serve. Beginning my beholding at the Lord and at the servant. And the manner of sitting of the Lord and the place that he sat on, and the colour of his clothing, and the manner of shape, and his cheer without, and his nobleness and his goodness within. At the manner of standing of the servant. And the place, where and how, at his manner of clothing, the colour and the shape, at his outward behaving and at his inward goodness, and his unloathsomeness. The Lord who sat solemnly in rest and in peace, I understand that he is God. The servant who stood before the Lord, I understood that it was showed for Adam, that is to say one man was showed, that time, and his falling to make there by understanding how God beholds /P/ all /S/ a /SP/ man and his falling. /SP/ For in the sight of God all man is one man and one man is all man. This man was hurt in his might and made most feeble, and he was stunned in his understanding, for he was turned from the beholding of his Lord, but his will was kept whole in God's sight. For his will I saw our Lord commend and approve. But himself was blocked and blinded of the knowing of this will. And this is to him great sorrow and grievous disease. For neither he sees clearly his loving Lord, who is to him full meek and mild, nor does he see truly what himself is in the sight of his loving Lord. And well I know when these two are wisely and truly seen we shall get rest and peace here, in part, and the fullness of the bliss of heaven, by his plenteous grace. And this was a beginning of teaching which I saw in the same time whereby I might come to knowing in what manner he beholds us in our sin. And then I saw that only pains blame and punish. And our courteous Lord comforts /S/ and sorrows /SP/ and succours /S/ the soul /P/ and ever he is to the soul in glad cheer loving and longing to bring us to bliss. The place where our Lord sat on was simply on the earth, barren and desert, alone in a wilderness, his clothing was wide and broad, and full seemly as becomes a Lord. The colour of his cloth was blue as azure, most sad and fair, his cheer was merciful. The colour of his face was fair brown /P/ white /SP/ with fulsomely features, his eyes were black, most fair and seemly, showing full of lovely pity and within him a/

height, length and breadth all full of endless /S/ heavens /P/ heavenliness. /SP/And the lovely looking that he looked upon his servant continually, and namely in his falling, I thought it might melt our hearts for love, and burst them in two for joy. The fair looking showed of a seemly mixture which was marvelous to behold. That one was ruth and pity. That other was joy and bliss. The joy and bliss pass as far ruth and pity as heaven is above earth. The pity was earthly and the bliss was heavenly. The ruth in the pity of the Father was of the falling of Adam who is his most loved creature. The joy and the bliss was of /P/ the falling of /SP/ his dearworthy Son, who is even with the Father. The merciful beholding of his lovely cheer fulfilled all earth and descended down with Adam into Hell, with which continuing pity, Adam was kept from endless death. And this mercy and pity dwells with mankind into the time we come up into heaven. But man is blinded in this life, and therefore we may not see our Father God, as he is. And what time that he of his goodness will show him to man, he shows him homely as man. Notwithstanding, /S/ I did not see /P/ I saw that /SP/ truly, we ought to know and believe that the Father is not man. But his sitting on the earth barren and desert means this. He made man's soul to be his own city, and his dwelling place, which is most pleasing to him of all his works, and what time that man was fallen into sorrow and pain, he was not all seemly to serve of that noble office. And therefore our natural Father would ordain for him no other place, but to sit upon the earth awaiting mankind, who is meddled of earth, till that time by his grace, his dearworthy Son had bought again his city into the noble fairness with his hard travail. The blueness of the clothing means his steadfastness, the brownness of his fair face with the seemly blackness of the eyes was most according to show his holy solemnity. The largeness of his clothing which were fair gathered about means he has beclosed in him all heavens and all /P/ endless /SP/ joy and bliss. And this was showed in a touch, where I /S/ say /P/ saw /SP/ my understanding was led into the Lord. In which I saw him highly enjoy, for the worshipful restoring that he will and shall bring his servant to, by his plenteous grace. And yet I marveled beholding the Lord and the servant beforesaid. I saw the Lord sit solemnly and the servant standing reverently before his Lord. In which Servant is double understanding. One without, another within. Outwardly he was clad simply as a labourer, who was ready to work, and he stood full near the Lord, not even before him, but in part to one side, and that on the left. His/

clothing was a single white kirtle, old and all defaced, dyed with the sweat of his body, tight fitting to him, and short, as it were a handful beneath the knee, seeming bare, as it should soon be worn out, ready to be ragged and rent. And in this I marveled greatly, thinking, this is now an unseemly garb for the servant who is so highly loved to stand in, before so worthy a Lord. And inward in him was showed a ground of love, which love he had to the Lord, was even like to the love the Lord had to him. The wisdom of the servant saw inwardly that there was one thing to do, which should be to the worship of the Lord. And the servant for love having no regard to himself, nor to anything that might befall him, hastily he started and ran at the sending of his Lord to do that thing which was his will and his worship. For it seemed by his outward clothing that he had been a continual worker /P/ and a hard labourer /SP/ for a long time. And by the inward sight that I had, both in the Lord and in the servant, it seemed that he was an apprentice. That is to say, newly beginning to work. Which servant was never sent out before. There was a treasure in the earth which the Lord loved. I marveled and thought, what might it be? And I was answered in my understanding, it is a meat which is lovesome and pleasing to the Lord. For I saw the Lord sitting as a man, and I saw neither meat nor drink wherewith to serve him. This was one marvel. Another marvel was that this solemn Lord had no servant but one. And him he sent out. I beheld thinking what manner labour it might be that the servant should do? And then I understood that he should do the greatest labour and hardest work that is. He should be a Gardener, digging and ditching, toiling and sweating, and turn the earth upsidedown, and seek the deepness, and water the plants in time. And in this he should continue his labour, and make sweet floods to run, and noble and plenteous fruits to spring forth which he should bring before the Lord and serve him therewith to his liking. And he should never turn again till he had prepared this meat all ready as he knew the Lord liked it. And then he should take this meat with the drink /S/ in the meat /SP/ and bear it full worshipfully before the Lord. And all this time the Lord should sit on the same place abiding his servant whom he sent out. And yet I marveled from where the servant came. For I saw in the/

Lord that he has within himself endless life and all manner of goodness, save that treasure that was in the earth, and that was grounded in the Lord in marvelous deepness of endless love. But it was not all to the worship till this servant had served it thus nobly, and brought it before him, presenting it himself. And around the Lord was nought but wilderness. And I did not understand all that this Parable meant, and therefore I marveled from where the servant came. In the servant is comprehended the second Person in the Trinity. And in the servant is comprehended Adam, that is to say, all men. And therefore, when I say the Son, it means the Godhead, who is even with the Father. And where I say the servant it means Christ's manhood, who is rightful Adam. By the nearness of the servant is understood the Son. And by the standing on the left side, is understood Adam. The Lord is the Father God, the servant is the Son Christ Jesus, the holy Ghost is even love which is in them both. When Adam fell, God's Son fell, from the rightful oneing which was made in heaven. God's Son might not go from Adam, for by Adam I understand all man. Adam fell from life to death into the hollow of this wretched world. And after that into Hell. God's Son fell with Adam into the slade of the Maiden's womb. Who was the fairest daughter of Adam. And that for to excuse Adam from blame in heaven and in earth. And mightily he fetched him out of Hell. By the wisdom and goodness that was in the servant is understood God's Son. By the poor clothing as a labourer standing near the left side, is understood the manhood and Adam with all the mischief and feebleness that follow. For in all this our good Lord showed his own Son and Adam as but one man. The virtue and the goodness that we have is of Jesus Christ, the feebleness and the blindness that we have is of Adam. Which two were showed in the servant. And thus has our good Lord Jesus taken upon him all our blame. And therefore our Father may not nor will no more blame assign to us than to his own Son dearworthy Christ. Thus was he, the servant, before his coming upon earth standing ready before the Father, on purpose till what time he would send him to do that worshipful deed, by which mankind was brought again into heaven. That is to say, notwithstanding that he is God even with the Father as regarding the Godhead. But in his foreseeing purpose, that he would be man to save man in fulfilling of his Father's will. So he stood before his Father as a servant wilfully taking upon him all our/

charge. And than he started full readily at the Father's will and immediately he fell full low into the Maiden's womb, having no regard to himself nor to his hard pains. The white kirtle is his flesh, the singleness of it, that there was right nought between the Godhead and the manhood, the narrowness is poverty, the age is of Adam's wearing, the defacing of sweat of Adam's work, the shortness shows the servant's labour. And thus I saw the Son standing, saying in his meaning, 'Lo, my dear Father, I stand before you in Adam's kirtle, all ready to start and to run. I would be on earth to do your worship when it is your will to send me. How long shall I desire?' Full truly the Son knows when it was the Father's will. And how long he shall desire. That is to say regarding the Godhead. For he is the wisdom of the Father. Wherefore this meaning was showed in understanding of the manhood of Christ. For all mankind that shall be saved by the sweet Incarnation and blissful Passion of Christ, all is the manhood of Christ. For he is the head. And we be his members. To which members the day and the time is unknown when every passing woe and sorrow shall have an end. And the everlasting joy and bliss shall be fulfilled. Which day and time for to see, all the company of heaven longs /P/ and desires. /SP/ And all that shall be under heaven that shall come there, their way is by longing and desire. Which desire and longing was showed in the servant standing before the Lord or else this in the Son's standing before the Father in Adam's kirtle. For the langour and desire of all mankind that shall be saved appeared in Jesus. For /P/ in /SP/ Jesus is all who shall be saved. And all who shall be saved is /P/ in /SP/ Jesus, and all of the charity of God, with obedience, meekness, and patience and virtues that belong to us. Also in this marvelous Parable I have teaching with me as it were the beginning of an ABC, whereby I may have some understanding of our Lord's meaning. For the privities of the Revelation be hid therein, notwithstanding that all the Showing is full of privities. The sitting of the Father betokens his Godhead, that is to say for Showing of rest and peace. For in the Godhead may be no labour. And that he showed himself as Lord, means our manhood. The standing of the servant means travail. To one side and to the left means that he was not all worthy to stand /S/ ever /P/ even /SP/ right before the Lord. His starting was the Godhead, and the running was the manhood. For the Godhead starts from the Father into the Maiden's womb, falling into the taking of our nature. And in this falling he took great sore. The sore that he took was our flesh, in which /P/ as Son /SP/ he had also sudden feeling of deadly pains. By that he stood full of dread before the/

Lord, and not even to his right, means that his clothing was not honest to stand even right before the Lord, nor that might not nor should not be his office while he was a labourer. Nor also might he sit in rest and peace with the Lord, till he had won his peace rightfully with his hard work. And by the left side, that the Father left his own Son wilfully in the manhood to suffer all man's pains without sparing of him. By his kirtle being at the point to be rent into rags, is understood the whips and the scourges, the thorns and the nails, the drawing and the dragging of his tender flesh rending, as I saw, in some part the flesh being rent from the headpan falling into pieces until the time the bleeding failed. And then it began to dry again, /S/ clinging /P/ cleaving /SP/ to the bone. And by the wallowing and writhing, groaning and moaning, is understood that he might never rise all mightily from the time that he was fallen into the Maiden's womb, till his body was slain and dead, he yielding the soul into the Father's hands with all mankind for whom he was sent. And at this point, he began first to show his might, for /P/ then /SP/ he went into Hell, and when he was there he raised up the great root out of the deep deepness, which rightfully was knit to him in high heaven. The body was in the grave till Easter Morrow. And from that time he lay never more. For then was rightfully ended the wallowing and the writhing, the groaning and the moaning. And our foul deadly flesh that God's Son took on him, which was Adam's old kirtle, tight, bare and short, then by our Saviour was made fair, new, white and bright and of endless cleanness, wide and long, fairer and richer, than was then the clothing which I saw on the Father. For that clothing was blue. And Christ's clothing is now of a fair, seemly rainbow, which is so marvelous that I cannot describe it. For it is all of true worship. Now sits not the Lord on earth in a wilderness, but he sits in his /P/ rich and /SP/ noblest throne which he made in heaven most to his liking. Now stands not the Son before the Father as a servant before the Lord full of dread, humbly clad, in part naked, but he stands before the Father ever right richly clad in blissfull largesse, with a crown upon his head of precious richness. For it was showed that we be his Crown, which Crown is the Father's joy, the Son's worship, the holy Ghost's liking. And endless marvelous bliss to all who be in heaven. Now stands not the Son before the Father on the left side as a labourer, but he sits at his Father's right hand in endless rest and peace. But it is not meant that the Son sits on the right hand side beside him as one man sits by another in this life. For there/

Flemish Manuscript of Trinity

is no such sitting as to my sight in the Trinity. But he sits on his Father's right hand, that is to say, in the highest nobility of the Father's joys. Now is the spouse, God's Son, in peace with his loved wife, who is the fair Maiden of endless joy. Now sits the Son true God and /P/ true /SP/ man in his city in rest and peace, which his Father has ordained to him of his endless purpose. And the Father in the Son. And the holy Ghost in the Father and in the Son.
  /S/God enjoys that he is our Father, Brother, and Spouse. And how the chosen have here a medley of weal and woe, but God is with us in three ways, and how we may eschew sin but never it. /SP/The Fifty-Second Chapter.
And thus I saw that God enjoys that he is our Father, God enjoys that he is our Mother, and God enjoys that he is our true Spouse. And our soul is his loved wife. And Christ enjoys that he is our brother. And Jesus enjoys that he is our Saviour. There are five high joys as I understand in which he will that we enjoy, him praising, him thanking, him loving, him endlessly blessing, all who shall be saved. For the time of this life we have in us a marvelous medley both of weal and woe. We have in us Lord Jesus /P/ Christ /SP/ Uprisen, we have in us the wretchedness and the mischief of Adam's falling dying. By Christ we are /S/ steadfastly /P/ lastingly /SP/ kept, and by his grace touching we are raised into /S/ secure /P/ true /SP/ trust of salvation. And by Adam's Falling we are so broken in our feeling in diverse manner /S/ business /P/ by sin /SP/ and by sundry pains, in which we are made dark and so blind that scarcely we can take any comfort. But in our meaning we abide God, and faithfully trust to have mercy and grace. And this is his own working in us. And of his goodness he opens the eye of our understanding by which we have sight, sometimes more, and sometimes less. After that God gives the ability to take. And now we are raised into that one, and now we are permitted to fall into that other. And thus is this medley so marvelous in us that scarce we know of ourself, or of our even-Christian in what way we stand, for the marvelousness of this sundry feeling. But that same holy assent that we assent to God when we feel him truly, willing to be with him with all our heart, with all our soul, and with all our might. And then we hate and despise our evil stirrings, and all that might be occasion of sin, ghostly and bodily. And yet nevertheless when this sweetness is hidden, we fall again into blindness and so into woe and tribulation in diverse ways. But then is this our comfort that we know in our faith, that by the virtue of Christ, who is our keeper, we assent never thereunto, but we grouch there again and endure in pain and woe, praying into the time that he show himself again to us. And thus/

we stand in this medley all the days of our life. But he wills /S/ us to /P/ we /SP/ trust that he is lastingly with us, and that in three ways. He is with us in heaven true man in his own Person, us up drawing. And that was showed in the ghostly thirst. And he is with us on earth leading us. And that was showed in the Third Showing, where I saw God in a point. And he is with us in our soul endlessly dwelling, ruling and /S/ guarding /P/ guiding /SP/ us. And that was showed in the Sixteenth Showing, as I shall say. And thus in the servant was showed the mischief and blindness of Adam's falling. And in the servant was showed the wisdom and goodness of God's Son. And in the Lord was showed the ruth and pity of Adam's woe. And in the Lord was showed the high nobleness and the endless worship that mankind is come to by the virtue of the Passion and the death of his dearworthy Son. And therefore mightily he enjoys in his falling, for the high Rising and fullness of bliss that mankind is come to overpasses what we should have had if he had not fallen. And thus to see this overpassing nobleness was my understanding led into God in the same time that I saw the servant fallen. And thus we have now matter of mourning. For our sin is cause of Christ's pains. And we have lastingly matter of joy. For endless love made him to suffer. And therefore the creature who sees and feels the working of love by grace, hates nought but sin. For of all thing to my sight love and hate are hardest and most unmeasurable contraries. And notwithstanding all this I saw and understood in our Lord's meaning, that we may not in this life keep us from sin, as /P/ all /SP/ wholly in full cleanness as we shall be in heaven. But we may well by grace keep us from the sins which will lead us to endless pains, as holy Church teaches us. And eschew venal sin reasonably with our might. And if we by our blindness and our wretchedness any time fall, that we readily rise, knowing the sweet touching of grace and wilfully amend us, upon the teaching of holy Church, after that the sin is grievous, and go forth /S/ to /P/ with /SP/ God in love. And neither on the one side fall over low inclining to despair, nor on that other side be over reckless as if we gave no force, but /S/ nakedly /P/ meekly /SP/ knowing our feebleness, understanding that we may not stand a twinkling of an eye but by keeping of grace. And reverently cleave to God trusting on him only. For otherwise is the beholding of God, and otherwise is the beholding of man. For it belongs to man meekly to accuse himself. And it belong to the proper goodness of our Lord God courteously to excuse man. And these be two parties that were showed in the double cheer, in which the Lord beheld the falling of his loved servant./

That one was showed outwardly, most meekly and mildly, with great ruth and pity. And that /P/ other of inward /SP/ endless love. And right thus will our Lord that we accuse ourself wilfully and truly seeing and knowing /S/ our falling and all the harms that come thereof, seeing and understanding that we may never restore it, and therewith that we wilfully and truly see and know /SP/ his everlasting love that he has for us and his plenteous mercy. And thus graciously to see and know both together is the meek accusing that our Lord asks of us. And himself works it, then it is. And this is the lower part of man's life. And it was showed in the outward cheer. In which Showing I saw two parts: That one is the rueful falling of man; That other is the worshipful Assize that our Lord has made for man. The other cheer was showed inwardly, and that was more highly and all one. For the life and the virtue that we have in the lower part is of the higher and it comes down to us of the natural love of the self by grace. Between that one and that other is right nought, for it is all one love. Which one blessed love has now in us a double working. For in the lower part are pains and passions, ruths and pities, mercies and forgiveness, and such other that are profitable. But in the higher part are none of these. But all one high love, and marvelous joy. In which marvelous joy all pains /S/ are highly restored /P/ be wholly destroyed. /SP/ And in this our good Lord showed not only our excusing, but also the worshipful nobleness that he shall bring us to, turning all our blame into endless worship.
/S/ The kindness of God assigns no blame to his chosen. For in these is a goodly will that never consents to sin. For the ruthfulness of God must so be knit to these, that there be a substance kept that may never be separated from him. /SP/ The Fifty-Third Chapter.
And /P/ thus /SP/ I saw that he will we know he takes not harder the falling of any creature who shall be saved, than he took the falling of Adam, whom we know was endlessly loved and securely kept in the time of all his need. And now is blissfully restored in high overpassing joys. For our lord God is so good, so gentle and so courteous, that he may never assign fault, in whom he shall ever be blessed and praised. And in this that I have now said was my desire in part answered and my great awe somewhat eased by the lovely gracious Showing of our good Lord. In which Showing I saw and understood full securely that in every soul that shall be saved is a godly will that never assents to sin nor ever shall. Which will is so good that it may never will /S/ ill /P/ evil, but evermore continually it wills good and works good in the sight of God. Therefore our Lord will we know it with faith and the belief. And namely and truly, that we have all this blessed will whole and safe in/

our Lord Jesus Christ. For that /S/ same /P/ each /SP/ nature that heaven shall be fulfilled with needs of God's righteousness so to be knit and oned to him, that therein were kept a substance which might never nor should be parted from him. And that through his own good will in his endless foreseeing purpose. And notwithstanding this rightful knitting and this endless oneing, yet the redemption and the again-buying of mankind is needful and helpful in everything, as it is done for the same intent and to the same end, that holy Church in our faith teaches us. For I saw that God began never to love mankind, for right the same that mankind shall be in endless bliss fulfilling the joy of God as regards his works, right so the same mankind has been in the foresight of God known and loved from without beginning in his rightful intent. And by the endless /P/ intent and /SP/ assent of the full accord of all the Trinity. The middle Person would be ground and head of this fair nature, out of whom we be all come, in whom we be all enclosed, into whom we shall all go, in him finding our full heaven in ever lasting joy by the foreseeing purpose of all the blessed Trinity from without beginning. For before that he made us he loved us. And when we were made we loved him. And this is a love made of this natural substantial goodness of the holy Ghost, mighty in reason of the might of the Father, and wise in mind of the wisdom of the Son. And thus is man's soul made of God, and in the same point knit to God. And thus I understand that man's soul is made of nought, that is to say, it is made but of nought that is made, as thus: when God should make man's body, he took the /S/ clay /P/ slime /SP/ of earth, which is a matter mixed and gathered from all bodily things, and thereof he made man's body. But to the making of man's soul he would take right nought, but made it. And thus is the nature made rightfuly oned to the Maker, who is substantial nature unmade, that is God. And therefore it is that there may nor shall be right nought between God and man's soul. And in the endless love man's soul is kept whole, as /P/ all /SP/ the matter of the Revelation means and shows, in which endless love we be led and kept of God and never shall be lost. For /W/ Also /WSP/ he will we know that our soul is a life, which life of his goodness and his grace shall last in heaven without end, him loving, him thanking, him praising. /SP/ And right the same we shall be without end, the same we were treasured in God, and hid, known and loved from without beginning. /W/ Also /SP/ Wherefore /SP/ he will we know that the noblest thing that ever he made is mankind, and the fullest substance, and the highest virtue is the blessed soul of Christ. And furthermore he will we know that his dearworthy soul was preciously knit to him in the/

making, which knot is /W/ so /WSP/ subtle, and so mighty that it is oned into God. In which oneing it is made endlessly holy. Furthermore he will we know that all the souls who shall be saved in heaven without end are knit and oned in this oneing, and made holy in this holiness.

Indices to Umiltà Website's Essays on Julian:


Influences on Julian
Her Self
Her Contemporaries
Her Manuscript Texts
with recorded readings of them
About Her Manuscript Texts
After Julian, Her Editors
Julian in our Day

Publications related to Julian:


Saint Bride and Her Book: Birgitta of Sweden's Revelations Translated from Latin and Middle English with Introduction, Notes and Interpretative Essay. Focus Library of Medieval Women. Series Editor, Jane Chance. xv + 164 pp. Revised, republished,  Boydell and Brewer, 1997. Republished, Boydell and Brewer, 2000. ISBN 0-941051-18-8

To see an example of a page inside with parallel text in Middle English and Modern English, variants and explanatory notes, click here. Index to this book at

Julian of Norwich. Showing of Love: Extant Texts and Translation. Edited. Sister Anna Maria Reynolds, C.P. and Julia Bolton Holloway. Florence: SISMEL Edizioni del Galluzzo (Click on British flag, enter 'Julian of Norwich' in search box), 2001. Biblioteche e Archivi 8. XIV + 848 pp. ISBN 88-8450-095-8.

To see inside this book, where God's words are in red, Julian's in black, her editor's in grey, click here. 

Julian of Norwich. Showing of Love. Translated, Julia Bolton Holloway. Collegeville: Liturgical Press; London; Darton, Longman and Todd, 2003. Amazon ISBN 0-8146-5169-0/ ISBN 023252503X. xxxiv + 133 pp. Index.

To view sample copies, actual size, click here.

Julian of Norwich, Showing of Love, Westminster Text, translated into Modern English, set in William Morris typefont, hand bound with marbled paper end papers within vellum or marbled paper covers, in limited, signed edition. A similar version available in Italian translation. To order, click here.

'Colections' by an English Nun in Exile: Bibliothèque Mazarine 1202. Ed. Julia Bolton Holloway, Hermit of the Holy Family. Analecta Cartusiana 119:26. Eds. James Hogg, Alain Girard, Daniel Le Blévec. Salzburg: Institut für Anglistik und Amerikanistik Universität Salzburg, 2006.

Anchoress and Cardinal: Julian of Norwich and Adam Easton OSB. Analecta Cartusiana 35:20 Spiritualität Heute und Gestern. Salzburg: Institut für Anglistik und Amerikanistik Universität Salzburg, 2008. ISBN 978-3-902649-01-0. ix + 399 pp. Index. Plates.

Teresa Morris. Julian of Norwich: A Comprehensive Bibliography and Handbook. Preface, Julia Bolton Holloway. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 2010. x + 310 pp.  ISBN-13: 978-0-7734-3678-7; ISBN-10: 0-7734-3678-2. Maps. Index.

Fr Brendan Pelphrey. Lo, How I Love Thee: Divine Love in Julian of Norwich. Ed. Julia Bolton Holloway. Amazon, 2013. ISBN 978-1470198299


Julian among the Books: Julian of Norwich's Theological Library. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2016. xxi + 328 pp. VII Plates, 59 Figures. ISBN (10): 1-4438-8894-X, ISBN (13) 978-1-4438-8894-3.

Mary's Dowry; An Anthology of Pilgrim and Contemplative Writings/ La Dote di Maria:Antologie di Testi di Pellegrine e Contemplativi. Traduzione di Gabriella Del Lungo Camiciotto. Testo a fronte, inglese/italiano. Analecta Cartusiana 35:21 Spiritualität Heute und Gestern. Salzburg: Institut für Anglistik und Amerikanistik Universität Salzburg, 2017. ISBN 978-3-903185-07-4. ix + 484 pp.

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