GEOFFREY CHAUCER


A TRETISSE ON THE ASTROLABE



yte Lowys my sone, I aperceyve wel by certeyne
evydences thyn abilite to lerne sciences
touching nombres and proporciouns; and as wel
considre I thy besy praier in special to lerne the
tretys of the Astrelabie. Than for as moche as a
philosofre saith, "he wrappith him in his frend,
that condescendith to the rightfulle praiers of his
frend," therfore have I yeven the a suffisant Astrolabie
as for oure orizonte, compowned
after the latitude of Oxenforde; upon
which, by mediacioun of this litel tretys, I
purpose to teche the a certein nombre of conclusions
aperteynyng to the same instrument. I
seie a certein of conclusions, for thre causes. The
first cause is this: truste wel that alle the conclusions
that han be founde, or ellys possibly
might be founde in so noble an instrument as is
an Astrelabie ben unknowe parfitly to eny mortal
man in this regioun, as I suppose. Another
cause is this, that sothly in any tretis of the
Astrelabie that I have seyn, there be somme
conclusions that wol not in alle thinges parformen
her bihestes; and somme of hem ben to
harde to thy tendir age of ten yeer to conceyve.
This tretis, divided in parties, wol I shewe
the under full light reules and naked wordes in
Englissh, for Latyn canst thou yit but small,
my litel sone. But natheles suffise to the these
trewe conclusions in Englissh as wel as sufficith
to these noble clerkes Grekes these
same conclusions in Grek; and to Arabiens
in Arabik, and to Jewes in Ebrew, and to
Latyn folk in Latyn; whiche Latyn folk had
hem first out of othere dyverse langages, and
writen hem in her owne tunge, that is to seyn,
in Latyn. And God woot that in alle these
langages and in many moo han these conclusions
ben suffisantly lerned and taught, and yit
by diverse reules; right as diverse pathes
leden diverse folk the righte way to Rome.
Now wol I preie mekely every discret persone
that redith or herith this litel tretys to have
my rude endityng for excusid, and my superfluite
of wordes, for two causes. The firste cause
is for that curious endityng and hard sentence
is ful hevy at onys for such a child to lerne.
And the secunde cause is this, that sothly me
semith better to writen unto a child twyes a
god sentence, than he forgete it onys.
And Lowys, yf so be that I shewe the in
my lighte Englissh as trewe conclusions
touching this mater, and not oonly as trewe
but as many and as subtile conclusiouns, as
ben shewid in Latyn in eny commune tretys
of the Astrelabie, konne me the more thank.
And preie God save the king, that is lord of
this langage, and alle that him feith berith and
obeieth, everich in his degre, the more and
the lasse. But considre wel that I ne usurpe
not to have founden this werk of my labour
or of myn engyn. I n' am but a lewd compilator
of the labour of olde astrologiens, and have it
translatid in myn Englissh oonly for thy doctrine.
And with this swerd shal I sleen envie.
Prima pars. -- The firste partie of this tretys
shal reherse the figures and the membres of
thyn Astrelabie by cause that thou shalt have
the gretter knowing of thyn oune instrument.
Secunda pars. -- The secunde partie
shal techen the worken the verrey practik
of the forseide conclusiouns, as ferforth and
as narwe as may be shewed in so small an
instrument portatif aboute. For wel woot
every astrologien that smallist fraccions ne
wol not be shewid in so small an instrument as
in subtile tables calculed for a cause.
Tertia pars. -- The thirde partie shal contene
diverse tables of longitudes and latitudes
of sterres fixe for the Astrelabie, and tables
of the declinacions of the sonne, and tables
of longitudes of citees and townes; and
tables as well for the governaunce of a clokke, as
for to fynde the altitude meridian; and many anothir
notable conclusioun after the kalenders
of the reverent clerkes, Frere J. Somer and
Frere N. Lenne.*
Quarta pars. -- The fourthe partie shal ben
a theorike to declare the moevyng of the celestiall
bodies with the causes. The whiche
fourthe partie in speciall shal shewen a
table of the verrey moeving of the mone
from houre to houre every day and in every
signe after thyn almenak. Upon which table
there folewith a canoun suffisant to teche as
wel the manere of the worchynge of the same
conclusioun as to knowe in oure orizonte with
which degre of the zodiak that the mone arisith
in any latitude, and the arisyng of any planete
after his latitude fro the ecliptik lyne.
Quinta pars. -- The fifthe partie shal
be an introductorie, after the statutes of
oure doctours, in which thou maist lerne a gret
part of the generall rewles of theorik in astrologie.
In which fifthe partie shalt thou fynden
tables of equaciouns of houses after the latitude of
Oxenforde; and tables of dignitees of planetes,
and othere notefull thinges, yf God wol vouche
saaf and his Moder the Maide, moo then I behete.
Thyn Astrolabie hath a ring to putten on
the thombe of thi right hond in taking the
height of thinges. And tak kep, for from henes
forthward I wol clepen the heighte of any thing
that is taken by the rewle "the altitude," withoute
moo wordes.
This ryng renneth in a maner toret fast
to the moder of thyn Astrelabie in so rowme a
space that it distourbith not the instrument to
hangen after his right centre.
The moder of thin Astrelabye is thikkest
plate, perced with a large hool, that resceiveth
in hir wombe the thynne plates compowned
for diverse clymates, and thy reet shapen in
manere of a nett or of a web of a loppe.
This moder is dividid on the bakhalf with
a lyne that cometh descending fro the ring
doun to the netherist bordure. The whiche
lyne, fro the forseide ring unto the centre of
the large hool amidde, is clepid the south lyne,
or ellis the lyne meridional. And the remenaunt
of this lyne doun to the bordure is
clepid the north lyne, or ellis the lyne of midnyght.
Overthwart this forseide longe lyne ther
crossith him another lyne of the same lengthe
from eest to west. Of the whiche lyne, from
a litel cros (+) in the bordure unto the centre
of the large hool, is clepid the est lyne, or
ellis the lyne orientale. And the remenaunt of
this lyne, fro the forseide centre unto the bordure,
is clepid the west lyne, or ellis the lyne
occidentale. Now hast thou here the foure
quarters of thin Astrolabie divided after the
foure principales plages or quarters of the firmament.
The est syde of thyn Astrolabie is clepid
the right syde, and the west syde is clepid the
left syde. Forget not thys, litel Lowys. Put
the ryng of thyn Astrolabie upon the thombe
of thi right hond, and than wol his right side
be toward thi lift side, and his left side wol be
toward thy right side. Tak this rewle generall,
as wel on the bak as on the wombe syde. Upon
the ende of this est lyne, as I first seide, is
marked a litel cros (+), where as evere
moo generaly is considerid the entring of
the first degre in which the sonne arisith.
Fro this litel cros (+) up to the ende
of the lyne meridionall, under the ryng, shalt
thou fynden the bordure divided with degrees;
and by that same proporcioun is every
quarter of thin Astrolabie divided. Over the
whiche degrees there ben noumbres of augrym
that dividen thilke same degres fro to , as
shewith by longe strikes bitwene. Of whiche
longe strikes the space bitwene contenith
a myle wey, and every degre of the bordure
conteneth minutes; this is to seien,
mynutes of an houre.
Under the compas of thilke degrees ben
writen the names of the Signes: as
Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo,
Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius,
Piscis. And the nombres of the degrees of
thoo signes be writen in augrym above, and
with longe divisiouns fro to , dyvidid fro
the tyme that the signe entrith unto the last
ende. But understond wel that these degres
of signes ben everich of hem considred
of mynutes, and every mynute of
secundes, and so furth into smale fraccions
infinite, as saith Alkabucius. And therfore
knowe wel that a degre of the bordure contenith
minutes, and a degre of a signe conteneth
minutes, and have this in mynde.
Next this folewith the cercle of the daies,
that ben figured in manere of degres, that contenen
in nombre , dividid also with longe
strikes fro to , and the nombre in augrym
writen under that cercle.
Next the cercle of the daies folewith the
cercle of the names of the monthes, that is to
say, Januarius, Februarius, Marcius, Aprilis,
Maius, Junius, Julius, Augustus, September,
October, November, December. The names
of these monthes were clepid somme for
her propirtees and somme by statutes of
Arabiens, somme by othre lordes of Rome.
Eke of these monthes, as liked to Julius
Cesar and to Cesar Augustus, somme were
compouned of diverse nombres of daies, as
Julie and August. Than hath Januarie daies,
Februarie , March , Aprill , May ,
Junius , Julius , Augustus , Septembre
, Octobre , Novembre , Decembre .
Natheles, all though that Julius Cesar toke
daies out of Feverer and putte hem in his
month of Juyll, and Augustus Cesar clepid the
month of August after his name and ordeined
it of daies, yit truste wel that the
sonne dwellith therfore nevere the more
ne lasse in oon signe than in another.
Than folewen the names of the holy
daies in the Kalender, and next hem the lettres
of the A B C on whiche thei fallen.
Next the forseide cercle of the A B C,
under the cross lyne, is marked the skale in
manere of squyres, or ellis in manere of laddres,
that serveth by his pointes and his
dyvisiouns of ful many a subtil conclusioun.
Of this forseide skale fro the cross lyne unto
the verrey angle is clepid Umbra Versa, and
the nethir partie is clepid Umbra Recta, or
ellis Umbra Extensa.
Than hast thou a brod reule, that hath
on either ende a square plate perced with certein
holes, somme more and somme lasse, to
resceyve the stremes of the sonne by day, and
eke by mediacioun of thin eye to knowe the
altitude of sterres by night.
Than is there a large pyn in manere of
an extre, that goth thorugh the hole that halt
the tables of the clymates and the riet in the
wombe of the moder; thorugh which pyn ther
goth a litel wegge, which that is clepid the
hors, that streynith all these parties to-hepe.
Thys forseide grete pyn in manere of an extre
is ymagyned to be the Pool Artik in thyn
Astralabie.
The wombe syde of thyn Astrelabie is
also divided with a longe cros in quarters
from est to west, fro southe to northe, fro
right syde to left side, as is the bakside.
The bordure of which wombe side is
divided fro the point of the est lyne unto the
point of the south lyne under the ring, in
degrees; and by that same proporcioun is every
quarter divided, as is the bakside. That
amountith degrees. And understond wel
that degres of this bordure ben aunswering and
consentrike to the degrees of the equinoxiall,
that is dividid in the same nombre as every
othir cercle is in the highe hevene. This
same bordure is divided also with
lettres capitals and a small cross (+) above
the south lyne, that shewith the houres
equals of the clokke. And, as I have seid,
of these degres maken a myle wey, and mile-wei
maken an houre. And every degre of thys
bordure contenith minutes, and every minute
secundes. Now have I told the twyes.
The plate under the riet is discrived
with cercles, of whiche the leest is
clepid the cercle of Cancre by cause that the
heved of Cancre turnith evermo consentrik
upon the same cercle. In this heved
of Cancer is the grettist declinacioun northward
of the sonne, and therfore is he clepid
solsticium of somer; which declinacioun, after
Ptholome, is degrees and minutes as
wel in Cancer as in Capricorn. This signe
of Cancer is clepid the tropik of somer, of
tropos, that is to seien "ageynward." For than
beginneth the sonne to passen from us-ward.
The myddel cercle in wydnesse, of these ,
is clepid the cercle equinoxiall, upon which
turnith evermo the hevedes of Aries and Libra.
And understond wel that evermo thys cercle
equinoxiall turnith justly from verrey est to verrey
west as I have shewed the in the speer
solide. This same cercle is clepid also
Equator, that is the weyer of the day; for
whan the sonne is in the hevedes of Aries and
Libra, than ben the dayes and the nightes ylike
of lengthe in all the world. And therfore ben
these signes called the equinoxiis. And all
that moeveth withinne the hevedes of these
Aries and Libra, his moevyng is clepid northward;
and all that moevith withoute these
hevedes, his moevyng is clepid southward,
as fro the equinoxiall. Tak kep of these
latitudes north and south, and forget it nat.
By this cercle equinoxiall ben considred the
houres of the clokke; for evermo the arisyng
of degrees of the equinoxiall makith an
houre equal of the clokke. This equinoxiall is
clepid the gurdel of the first moeving, or ellis
of the firste moevable. And note that the firste
moevyng is clepid moevyng of the firste moevable
of the speer, which moeving is from
est to west, and eft ageyn into est. Also
it is clepid girdel of the firste moeving for it
departith the firste moevable, that is to seyn
the spere, in two like partyes evene distantz
fro the poles of this world.
The widest of these principale cercles is
clepid the cercle of Capricorne, by cause that
the heved of Capricorne turneth evermo consentrik
upon the same cercle. In the heved of
this forseide Capricorne is the grettist declinacioun
southward of the sonne, and therfore
it is clepid the solsticium of wynter.
This signe of Capricorne is also clepid the
tropic of wynter, for than begynneth the sonne
to come ageyn to us-ward.
Upon this forseide plate ben compassed
certeyn cercles that highten almycanteras, of
whiche somme of hem semen parfit cercles and
somme semen inparfit. The centre that stondith
amyddes the narwest cercle is clepid the
cenyth. And the netherist cercle, or the firste
cercle, is clepid the orizonte, that is to seyn,
the cercle that divideth the two emysperies,
that is, the partie of the hevene above the
erthe and the partie bynethe. These almykanteras
ben compowned by and , all
be it so that on diverse Astrelabies somme
almykanteras ben divided by oon, and somme
by two, and somme by thre, after the quantite
of the Astrelabie. This forseide cenyth is
ymagined to ben the verrey point over the
crowne of thin heved. And also this cenyth
is the verray pool of the orizonte in every regioun.
From this cenyth, as it semeth, there
comen a maner croked strikes like to the clawes
of a loppe, or elles like the werk of a wommans
calle, in kervyng overthwart the almykanteras.
And these same strikes or divisiouns
ben clepid azimutz, and thei dividen the orisounte
of thin Astrelabie in divisiouns. And
these azymutz serven to knowe the costes of
the firmament, and to othre conclusions, as
for to knowe the cenyth of the sonne and
of every sterre.
Next these azymutz, under the cercle
of Cancer, ben there divisiouns embelif,
muche like to the shap of the azemutz, that
shewen the spaces of the houres of planetes.
The riet of thin Astrelabie with thy zodiak,
shapen in manere of a net or of a lopweb
after the olde descripcioun, which thou maist
turnen up and doun as thiself liketh, contenith
certein nombre of sterres fixes, with her longitudes
and latitudes determinat, yf so be that the
maker have not errid. The names of the sterres
ben writen in the margyn of the riet there as thei
sitte, of whiche sterres the smale point is
clepid the centre. And understond also that
alle the sterres sitting within the zodiak of
thin Astrelabie ben clepid sterres of the north,
for thei arise by northe the est lyne. And all the
remenaunt fixed oute of the zodiak ben clepid
sterres of the south. But I seie not that thei arisen
alle by southe the est lyne; witnesse on Aldeberan
and Algomeysa. Generaly understond this
rewle, that thilke sterres that ben clepid sterres
of the north arisen rather than the degre of
her longitude, and alle the sterres of the
south arisen after the degre of her longitude --
this is to seyn, sterres fixed in thyn
Astrelabie. The mesure of this longitude of
sterres is taken in the lyne ecliptik of hevene,
under which lyne, whan that the sonne and the
mone be lyne-right, or ellis in the superficie of
this lyne, than is the eclipse of the sonne or of
the mone, as I shal declare, and eke the cause
why. But sothly the ecliptik lyne of thy
zodiak is the utterist bordure of thy zodiak
there the degrees be marked.
Thy zodiak of thin Astrelabie is shapen as
a compas which that contenith a large brede
as after the quantite of thyn Astrelabie, in ensample
that the zodiak in hevene is ymagyned
to ben a superfice contenyng a latitude of
degrees, whereas alle the remenaunt of cercles
in the hevene ben ymagyned verrey lynes withoute
eny latitude. Amiddes this celestial
zodiak is ymagined a lyne which that is
clepid the ecliptik lyne, under which lyne
is evermo the wey of the sonne. Thus ben
there degres of the zodiak on that oo syde
of the lyne and degrees on that othir. This
zodiak is dividid in principale divisiouns that
departen the signes, and, for the streitnesse
of thin Astrolabie, than is every smal divisioun
in a signe departed by two degrees and two, I
mene degrees contenyng mynutes. And
this forseide hevenysshe zodiak is clepid
the cercle of the signes, or the cercle of the
bestes, for "zodia" in langage of Grek sowneth
"bestes" in Latyn tunge. And in the zodiak
ben the signes that han names of bestes,
or ellis for whan the sonne entrith in eny
of tho signes he takith the propirte of suche
bestes, or ellis for that the sterres that ben
ther fixed ben disposid in signes of bestes or
shape like bestes, or elles whan the planetes
ben under thilke signes thei causen us by
her influence operaciouns and effectes like
to the operaciouns of bestes.
And understond also that whan an hot planete
cometh into an hot signe, than encrescith
his hete; and yf a planete be cold, than amenusith
his coldnesse by cause of the hoote sygne.
And by thys conclusioun maist thou take ensample
in alle the signes, be thei moist or drie,
or moeble or fixe, reknyng the qualite of the
planete as I first seide. And everich of
these signes hath respect to a certeyn
parcel of the body of a man, and hath it in
governaunce; as Aries hath thin heved, and
Taurus thy nekke and thy throte, Gemini thin
armholes and thin armes, and so furth, as shall
be shewid more pleyn in the partie of this
tretis.
This zodiak, which that is part of the speer,
over-kervith the equinoxial, and he over-kervith
him ageyn in evene parties; and
that oo half declineth southward; and that
othir northward, as pleinly declarith the Tretys
of the Speer.
Than hast thou a label that is shapen like
a reule, save that it is streit and hath no plates
on either ende with holes. But with the smale
point of the forseide label shalt thou calcule
thin equaciouns in the bordure of thin Astralabie,
as by thin almury.
Thin almury is clepid the denticle of
Capricorne, or ellis the calculer. This same
almury sitt fix in the heved of Capricorne, and
it serveth of many a necessarie conclusioun in
equacions of thinges as shal be shewid.
To fynde the degre in which the sonne is
day by day, after his cours aboute.

Rekne and knowe which is the day of thy
month, and ley thy rewle upon that same day,
and than wol the verrey poynt of thy rewle
sitten in the bordure upon the degre of thy
sonne.
Ensample as thus: The yeer of oure Lord,
the day of March at midday, I wolde
knowe the degre of the sonne. I soughte in
the bakhalf of myn Astrelabie and fond the
cercle of the daies, the whiche I knowe by
the names of the monthes writen under the
same cercle. Tho leyde I my reule over this
foreseide day, and fond the point of my reule
in the bordure upon the firste degre of Aries,
a litel within the degre. And thus knowe I this
conclusioun.
Anothir day I wolde knowen the degre of
my sonne, and this was at midday in the
day of Decembre. I fond the day of the
month in manere as I seide; tho leide I my
rewle upon this forseide day, and fond
the point of my rewle in the bordure upon
the firste degre of Capricorne a lite within the
degre. And than had I of this conclusioun the
ful experience.
To knowe the altitude of the sonne or of
othre celestial bodies.

Put the ryng of thyn Astrelabie upon thy
right thombe, and turne thi lift syde ageyn
the light of the sonne; and remewe thy rewle
up and doun til that the stremes of the sonne
shine thorugh bothe holes of thi rewle. Loke
than how many degrees thy rule is areised fro
the litel cros upon thin est lyne, and tak there
the altitude of thi sonne. And in this same
wise maist thow knowe by night the altitude
of the mone or of brighte sterres.
This chapitre is so generall evere in oon
that there nedith no more declaracioun; but
forget it not.
To knowe every tyme of the day by light
of the sonne; and every tyme of the nyght by
the sterres fixe; and eke to knowe by nyght or
by day the degre of eny signe that ascendith on
the est orisonte, which that is clepid comounly
the ascendent, or ellis horoscopum.

Tak the altitude of the sonne whan the list,
as I have seid, and set the degre of the sonne,
in caas that it be beforn the myddel of the day,
among thyn almykanteras on the est syde of
thin Astrelabie; and if it be after the myddel
of the day, set the degre of thy sonne upon the
west syde. Tak this manere of settyng for a
general rule, ones for evere. And whan thou
hast set the degre of thy sonne upon as
many almykanteras of height as was the altitude
of the sonne taken by thy rule, ley
over thi label upon the degre of the sonne; and
than wol the point of thi labell sitte in the
bordure upon the verrey tyde of the day.
Ensample as thus: The yeer of oure lord
, the day of March, I wolde knowe the
tyde of the day. I tok the altitude of my sonne,
and fond that it was degrees and minutes
of height in the bordure on the bak
side. Tho turned I myn Astrelabye, and by
cause that it was before mydday, I turned
my riet and sette the degre of the sonne, that
is to seyn the firste degre of Aries, on the right
side of myn Astrelabye upon degrees and
mynutes of height among myn almykanteras.
Tho leide I my label upon the degre of my
sonne, and fond the point of my label in the
bordure upon a capital lettre that is clepid
an X. Tho rekned I alle the capitale lettres
fro the lyne of mydnight unto this forseide
lettre X, and fond that it was of the
clokke of the day. Tho loked I doun upon myn
est orizonte, and fond there the degre of
Geminis ascendyng, which that I tok for myn
ascendent. And in this wise had I the experience
for evermo in which manere I shulde
knowe the tyde of the day and eke myn ascendent.
Tho wolde I wite the same nyght folewyng
the houre of the nyght, and wroughte
in this wise: Among an heep of sterres
fixe it liked me for to take the altitude of the
faire white sterre that is clepid Alhabor, and
fond hir sittyng on the west side of the lyne
of midday, degrees of heighte taken by my
rewle on the bak side. Tho sette I the centre
of this Alhabor upon degrees among myn
almykanteras upon the west side, by cause that
she was founde on the west side. Tho
leyde I my label over the degre of the
sonne, that was discendid under the west
orisounte, and rekned all the lettres capitals
fro the lyne of midday unto the point of my
label in the bordure, and fond that it was
passed of the clokke the space of degrees.
Tho lokid I doun upon myn est orisounte, and
fond there degrees of Scorpius ascendyng,
whom I tok for myn ascendent. And thus
lerned I to knowe onys for ever in which
manere I shuld come to the houre of the
nyght, and to myn ascendent, as verrely as
may be taken by so smal an instrument.
But natheles this rule in generall wol I warne
the for evere: Ne make the nevere bold to
have take a just ascendent by thin Astrelabie,
or elles to have set justly a clokke, whan eny
celestial body by which that thou wenyst governe
thilke thinges be nigh the south lyne.
For trust wel, whan the sonne is nygh the
meridional lyne, the degre of the sonne
renneth so longe consentrik upon the almykanteras
that sothly thou shalt erre fro the
just ascendent. The same conclusioun sey I by
the centre of eny sterre fix by nyght. And
more over, by experience I wot wel that in
oure orisounte, from xi of the clokke unto oon
of the clokke, in taking of a just ascendent in
a portatif Astrelabie it is to hard to knowe --
I mene from xi of the clokke before the
houre of noon til oon of the clokke next
folewyng.
A special declaracioun of the ascendent.
The ascendent sothly, as wel in alle nativites
as in questions and eleccions of tymes, is a
thing which that these astrologiens gretly observen.
Wherfore me semeth convenyent, syth
that I speke of the ascendent, to make of it
speciall declaracioun.
The ascendent sothly, to take it at the largest,
is thilke degre that ascendith at eny of
these forseide tymes upon the est orisounte.
And therfore, yf that eny planete ascende
at thatt same tyme in thilke forseide degre,
than hath he no latitude fro the ecliptik lyne,
but he is than in the degre of the ecliptik
which that is the degre of his longitude. Men
sayn that thilke planete is in horoscopo.
But sothly the hous of the ascendent, that
is to seyn, the first hous or the est angle, is a
thing more brod and large. For, after the statutes
of astrologiens, what celestial body
that is degrees above thilke degre that
ascendith, or withinne that nombre, that is
to seyn neer the degree that ascendith, yit
rekne they thilke planete in the ascendent.
And what planete that is under thilke degre
that ascendith the space of degres, yit seyn
thei that thilke planete is "like to him that is
the hous of the ascendent." But sothly, if he
passe the boundes of these forseide spaces,
above or bynethe, thei seyn that the planete
is "fallyng fro the ascendent." Yit saien
these astrologiens that the ascendent and
eke the lord of the ascendent may be shapen
for to be fortunat or infortunat, as thus: A
"fortunat ascendent" clepen they whan that no
wicked planete, as Saturne or Mars or elles
the Tayl of the Dragoun, is in the hous of the
ascendent, ne that no wicked planete have
noon aspect of enemyte upon the ascendent.
But thei wol caste that thei have a fortunat
planete in hir ascendent, and yit in his felicite;
and than sey thei that it is wel.
Further over thei seyn that the infortunyng of
an ascendent is the contrarie of these forseide
thinges. The lord of the ascendent, sey thei
that he is fortunat whan he is in god place
fro the ascendent, as in an angle, or in a succident
where as he is in hys dignite and comfortid
with frendly aspectes of planetes and
wel resceyved; and eke that he may seen
the ascendent; and that he be not retrograd,
ne combust, ne joyned with no
shrewe in the same signe; ne that he be not
in his discencioun, ne joyned with no planete
in his descencioun, ne have upon him noon
aspect infortunat; and than sey thei that he is
well.
Natheles these ben observaunces of judicial
matere and rytes of payens, in whiche my
spirit hath no feith, ne knowing of her
horoscopum. For they seyn that every
signe is departid in thre evene parties by
degrees, and thilke porcioun they clepe a
face. And although that a planete have a latitude
fro the ecliptik, yit sey somme folk, so
that the planete arise in that same signe with
eny degre of the forseide face in which his
longitude is rekned, that yit is the planete
in horoscopo, be it in nativyte or in eleccion,
etc.
To knowe the verrey equacioun of the
degre of the sonne yf so be that it falle bitwene
thyn almykanteras.

For as muche as the almykanteras in thin
Astrelabie ben compowned by two and two,
where as somme almykanteras in sondry astrelabies
be compowned by and , or elles by
and , it is necessarie to thy lernyng to teche
the first to knowe and worke with thin oune
instrument. Wherfore whan that the degre of
thi sonne fallith bytwixe almykanteras, or
ellis yf thin almykanteras ben graven with
over-gret a poynt of a compas (for bothe
these thinges may causen errour as wel in
knowing of the tide of the day, as of the verrey
ascendent), thou must worken in this
wise:
Set the degre of thy sonne upon the hyer
almykanteras of bothe, and wayte wel where
as thin almury touchith the bordure and set
there a prikke of ynke. Sett doun agayn the
degre of the sunne upon the nether almykanteras
of bothe, and sett there another
pricke. Remeve than thin almury in
the bordure evene amiddes bothe prickes, and
this wol lede justly the degre of thi sonne to
sitte bitwene bothe almykanteras in his right
place. Ley than thy label over the degre of
thi sonne, and fynd in the bordure the verrey
tyde of the day, or of the night. And as verraily
shalt thou fynde upon thin est orisonte
thin ascendent.
To knowe the spryng of the dawenyng
and the ende of the evenyng, the whiche ben
called the two crepuscules.

Set the nadir of thy sonne upon degrees
of height among thyn almykanteras on the west
syde; and ley thy label on the degre of thy
sonne, and than shal the point of thy label
shewen the spryng of the day. Also set the
nader of thy sonne upon degrees of height
among thin almykanteras on the est side, and
ley over thy label upon the degre of the sonne,
and with the point of thy label fynd in the
bordure the ende of the evenyng, that is
verrey nyght.
The nader of the sonne is thilke degre that
is opposyt to the degre of the sonne, in the
signe, as thus: every degre of Aries by
ordir is nadir to every degre of Libra by ordre,
and Taurus to Scorpioun, Gemini to Sagittarie,
Cancer to Capricorne, Leo to Aquarie, Virgo
to Piscis. And if eny degre in thy zodiak be
derk, his nadir shal declare hym.
To knowe the arch of the day, that some
folk callen the day artificiall, fro sonne arisyng
tyl it go to reste.

Set the degre of thi sonne upon thin est
orisonte, and ley thy label on the degre of
the sonne, and at the point of thy label in the
bordure set a pricke. Turne than thy riet
aboute tyl the degre of the sonne sitte upon
the west orisonte, and ley thy label upon the
same degre of the sonne, and at the poynt of
thy label set another pricke. Rekne than
the quantite of tyme in the bordure bitwixe
bothe prickes, and tak there thyn arch of
the day. The remenaunt of the bordure
under the orisonte is the arch of the nyght.
Thus maist thou rekne bothe arches, or every
porcioun, of whether that the liketh. And by
this manere of worching maist thou se how
longe that eny sterre fix dwelleth above the
erthe, fro tyme that he riseth til he go to reste.
But the day naturall, that is to seyn hours,
is the revolucioun of the equinoxial with as
muche partie of the zodiak as the sonne of
his propre moeving passith in the mene
while.
To turne the houres inequales in houres
equales.

Know the nombre of the degrees in the
houres inequales, and depart hem by , and
tak there thin houres equales.
To knowe the quantite of the day vulgar,
that is to seyn fro spryng of the day unto
verrey nyght.

Know the quantite of thy crepuscles, as I
have taught in the chapitre bifore, and adde
hem to the arch of thy day artificial, and tak
there the space of all the hool day vulgar unto
verrey night. The same manere maist thou
worche to knowe the quantite of the vulgar
nyght.
To knowe the quantite of houres inequales
by day.

Understond wel that these houres inequales
ben clepid houres of planetes. And understond
wel that som tyme ben thei lenger by
day than by night, and som tyme the contrarie.
But understond wel that evermo generaly
the houre inequal of the day with the
houre inequal of the night contenen degrees
of the bordure, which bordure is evermo answeryng
to the degrees of the equinoxial.
Wherfore departe the arch of the day artificial
in , and tak there the quantite of
the houre inequale by day. And if thou abate
the quantite of the houre inequale by day out
of , than shal the remenaunt that levith parforme
the houre inequale by night.
To knowe the quantite of houres
equales.

The quantite of houres equales, that is to
seyn the houres of the clokke, ben departid by
degrees alredy in the bordure of thin Astrelaby,
as wel by night as by day, generaly for
evere. What nedith more declaracioun?
Wherfore whan the list to knowe hou many
houres of the clokke ben passed, or eny part
of eny of these houres that ben passed, or ellis
how many houres or parties of houres ben
to come fro such a tyme to such a tyme by
day or by night, know the degre of thy
sonne, and ley thy label on it. Turne thy ryet
aboute joyntly with thy label, and with the
poynt of it rekne in the bordure fro the sonne
arise unto that same place there thou desirist,
by day as by nyght. This conclusioun wol I declare
in the laste chapitre of the partie of this
tretys so openly that ther shal lakke no word
that nedith to the declaracioun.
Special declaracioun of the houres of
planetes.

Understond wel that evermo, fro the arisyng
of the sonne til it go to reste, the nadir of
the sonne shal shewe the houre of the planete;
and fro that tyme forward al the night til the
sonne arise, than shal the verrey degre of the
sonne shewe the houre of the planete.
Ensample as thus: The xiij day of March
fyl upon a Saturday, peraventure, and atte risyng
of the sonne I fond the secunde degre
of Aries sittyng upon myn est orisonte, all
be it that it was but litel. Than fond I the
degre of Libra, nadir of my sonne, discending
on my west orisonte, upon which west orisonte
every day generaly, atte sonne arist, entrith the
houre of eny planete, after which planete the
day berith his name, and endith in the next
strike of the plate under the forseide west
orisonte. And evere as the sonne clymbith upper
and upper, so goth his nadir downer
and downer, teching by suche strikes the
houres of planetes by ordir as they sitten
in the hevene. The firste houre inequal of
every Saturday is to Saturne, and the secunde
to Jupiter, the thirde to Mars, the fourthe
to the sonne, the fifte to Venus, the sixte to
Mercurius, the seventhe to the mone. And
then ageyn the is to Saturne, the to
Jupiter, the to Mars, the to the sonne,
the to Venus. And now is my sonne gon
to reste as for that Saturday. Than shewith
the verrey degre of the sonne the houre
of Mercurie entring under my west orisonte at
eve; and next him succedith the mone, and
so furth by ordir, planete after planete in houre
after houre, all the nyght longe til the sonne
arise. Now risith the sonne that Sonday by
the morwe, and the nadir of the sonne upon
the west orisonte shewith me the entring of the
houre of the forseide sonne. And in this
manere succedith planete under planete fro
Saturne unto the mone, and fro the mone up
ageyn to Saturne, houre after houre generaly.
And thus knowe I this conclusyoun.
To knowe the altitude of the sonne in
myddes of the day that is clepid the altitude
meridian.

Set the degre of the sonne upon the lyne
meridional, and rekne how many degres of
almykanteras ben bitwyxe thin est orisonte and
the degre of thy sonne; and tak there thin altitude
meridian, this to seyn, the highest of the
sonne as for that day. So maist thou knowe in
the same lyne the heighest cours that eny sterre
fix clymbeth by night. This is to seyn that whan
eny sterre fix is passid the lyne meridional,
than begynneth it to descende; and so doth
the sonne.
To knowe the degre of the sonne by thy
ryet, for a maner curiosite.

Sek besily with thy rule the highest of the
sonne in mydde of the day. Turne than thin
Astrelabie, and with a pricke of ynke marke
the nombre of that same altitude in the lyne
meridional; turne than thy ryet aboute tyl thou
fynde a degre of thy zodiak according with the
pricke, this is to seyn, sitting on the pricke.
And in soth thou shalt finde but degrees in
all the zodiak of that condicioun; and yit
thilke degrees ben in diverse signes.
Than maist thou lightly, by the sesoun of
the yere, knowe the signe in which that is the
sonne.
To knowe which day is lik to which
day as of lengthe.

Loke whiche degrees ben ylike fer fro the
hevedes of Cancer and Capricorne, and loke
when the sonne is in eny of thilke degrees;
than ben the dayes ylike of lengthe. This is
to seyn that as longe is that day in that month,
as was such a day in such a month; there varieth
but litel.
Also, yf thou take dayes naturales in the
yere ylike fer fro either point of the equinoxiall
in the opposyt parties, than as longe
is the day artificiall of that oon day as is the
night of that othir, and the contrarie.
This chapitre is a maner declaracioun
to conclusiouns that folewen.

Understond wel that thy zodiak is departed
in two halve circles, as fro the heved of Capricorne
unto the heved of Cancer, and ageynward
fro the heved of Cancer unto the heved
of Capricorne. The heved of Capricorne is
the lowest point where as the sonne goth in
wynter, and the heved of Cancer is the heighist
point in which the sonne goth in somer. And
therfore understond wel that eny two degrees
that ben ylike fer fro eny of these two
hevedes, truste wel that thilke two degrees
ben of ilike declinacioun, be it southward or
northward, and the daies of hem ben ilike of
lengthe and the nyghtes also, and the shadewes
ilyke, and the altitudes ylike atte midday
for evere.
To knowe the verrey degre of eny maner
sterre, straunge or unstraunge, after his longitude;
though he be indetermynat in thin
Astralabye, sothly to the trouthe thus he shal
be knowe.

Tak the altitude of this sterre whan he is on
the est syde of the lyne meridionall, as nye
as thou mayst gesse; and tak an ascendent anon
right by som manere sterre fix which that thou
knowist; and forget not the altitude of the firste
sterre ne thyn ascendent. And whan that this
is don, aspye diligently whan this same firste
sterre passith eny thyng the south westward;
and cacche him anon right in the same
nombre of altitude on the west syde of this
lyne meridional, as he was kaught on the
est syde; and tak a newe ascendent anon-ryght
by som maner sterre fix which that thou knowist,
and forget not this secunde ascendent. And
whan that this is don, rekne than how many
degrees ben bitwixe the firste ascendent and
the secunde ascendent; and rekne wel the myddel
degre bitwene bothe ascendentes, and set
thilke myddel degre upon thyn est orizonte;
and wayte than what degre that sitte upon
the lyne meridional, and tak there the verrey
degre of the ecliptik in which the sterre
stondith for the tyme. For in the ecliptik is the
longitude of a celestiall body rekned, evene
fro the heved of Aries unto the ende of Pisces;
and his latitude is rekned after the quantite of
his declynacioun north or south toward the
polys of this world.
As thus: Yif it be of the sonne or of
eny fix sterre, rekne hys latitude or his
declinacioun fro the equinoxiall cercle; and
if it be of a planete, rekne than the quantite
of his latitude fro the ecliptik lyne, all be it
so that fro the equinoxiall may the declinacioun
or the latitude of eny body celestiall be rekned
after the site north or south and after the quantite
of his declinacioun. And right so may the
latitude or the declinacioun of eny body celestiall,
saaf oonly of the sonne, after hys site
north or south and after the quantite of his
declinacioun, be rekned fro the ecliptik
lyne; fro which lyne alle planetes som tyme
declinen north or south saaf oonly the forseide
sonne.
To knowe the degrees of longitudes of
fixe sterres after that they be determynat in
thin Astrelabye, yf so be that thei be trewly
sette.

Set the centre of the sterre upon the lyne
meridionall, and tak kep of thy zodiak, and
loke what degre of eny signe that sitte upon
the same lyne meridionall at that same tyme,
and tak there the degre in which the sterre
stondith. and with that same degre cometh that
same sterre unto that same lyne fro the orisonte.
To knowe with which degre of the zodiak
eny sterre fix in thin Astrelabie arisith
upon the est orisonte, all though his dwellyng
be in another signe.

Set the centre of the sterre upon the est
orisonte, and loke what degre of eny signe that
sitt upon the same orisonte at that same tyme.
And understond wel that with that same degre
arisith that same sterre.
And thys merveylous arisyng with a straunge
degre in another signe is by cause that the
latitude of the sterre fix is either north or south
fro the equinoxiall. But sothly the latitudes
of planetes be comounly rekened fro the
ecliptyk, by cause that noon of hem declyneth
but fewe degrees out fro the brede of the
zodiak. And tak god kep of this chapitre of
arisyng of celestialle bodies; for truste wel that
neyther mone ne sterre, as in our embelif
orisonte, arisith with that same degre of his
longitude saaf in oo cas, and that is whan they
have no latitude fro the ecliptyk lyne. But
natheles som tyme is everich of these planetes
under the same lyne.
To knowe the declinacioun of eny degre
in the zodiak fro the equinoxiall cercle.

Set the degre of eny signe upon the lyne
meridionall, and rekne hys altitude in the
almykanteras fro the est orisonte up to the same
degre set in the forseide lyne, and set there a
prikke; turne up than thy riet, and set the heved
of Aries or Libra in the same meridionall lyne,
and set there a nother prikke. And whan that
this is don, considre the altitudes of hem bothe;
for sothly the difference of thilke altitudes
is the declinacioun of thilke degre fro the
equinoxiall. And yf it so be that thilke degre
be northward fro the equinoxiall, than is
his declinacyoun north; yif it be southward,
than is it south.
To knowe for what latitude in eny regioun
the almykanteras of eny table ben compowned.

Rekene how many degrees of almykanteras
in the meridionall lyne ben fro the cercle equinoxiall
unto the cenyth, or elles from the pool
artyk unto the north orisonte; and for so gret
a latitude, or for so smal a latitude, is the table
compowned.
To knowe in speciall the latitude of
oure countre, I mene after the latitude of Oxenford,
and the height of oure pool.

Understond wel that as fer is the heved of
Aries or Libra in the equinoxiall fro oure orisonte
as is the cenyth fro the pool artik; and
as high is the pool artik fro the orisonte as the
equinoxiall is fer fro the cenyth. I prove it
thus by the latitude of Oxenford: understond
wel that the height of oure pool artik fro oure
north orisonte is degrees and mynutes;
than is the cenyth fro oure pool artik degrees
and mynutes; than is the equinoxial
from oure cenyth degrees and
mynutes; than is oure south orisonte from oure
equinoxiall degres and mynutes. Understond
wel this rekenyng. Also forget not
that the cenyth is degrees of height from
the orisonte, and oure equinoxiall is degres
from oure pool artik. Also this shorte rule is
soth, that the latitude of eny place in a regioun
is the distaunce fro the cenyth unto
the equinoxiall.
To prove evidently the latitude of eny
place in a regioun by the preve of the height
of the pool artik in that same place.

In som wynters nyght whan the firmament
is cler and thikke sterred, wayte a tyme til
that eny sterre fix sitte lyne-right perpendiculer
over the pool artik, and clepe that sterre A;
and wayte another sterre that sitte lyne-right
under A, and under the pool, and clepe that
sterre F. And understond wel that F is not
considrid but oonly to declare that A sitte
evene over the pool. Tak than anoon-right
the altitude of A from the orisonte, and forget
it not; let A and F goo fare wel tyl
ageynst the dawenyng a gret while, and com
than ageyn, and abid til that A is evene under
the pool, and under F; for sothly than wol F
sitte over the pool, and A wol sitte under the
pool. Tak than eftsonys the altitude of A from
the orisonte, and note as wel his secunde altitude
as hys firste altitude. And whan that this
is doon, rekene how many degrees that the
firste altitude of A excedith his secunde altitude,
and tak half thilke porcioun that is
excedid and adde it to his secunde altitude,
and tak there the elevacioun of thy pool, and
eke the latitude of thy regioun; for these two
ben of oo nombre, this is to seyn, as many degres
as thy pool is elevat, so muche is the latitude
of the regioun.
Ensample as thus: Peraventure the altitude of
A in the evenyng is degrees of height;
than wol his secunde altitude or the dawenyng
be degres, that is degrees lasse
than , that was his first altitude att even.
Tak than the half of and adde it to that
was his secunde altitude, and than hast thou
. Now hast thou the height of thy pool and
the latitude of the regioun. But understond
wel that to prove this conclusioun and many
another faire conclusioun, thou must have a
plomet hongyng on a lyne, heygher than
thin heved, on a perche; and thilke lyne
must hange evene perpendiculer bytwixe
the pool and thin eye; and than shalt thou
seen yf A sitte evene over the pool, and over
F atte evene; and also yf F sitte evene over the
pool and over A or day.
 Another conclusioun to prove the
height of the pool artik fro the orisonte.

Tak eny sterre fix that never descendith under
the orisonte in thilke regioun, and considre
his heighist altitude and his lowist altitude
fro the orisonte, and make a nombre of
bothe these altitudes; tak than and abate half
that nombre, and take there the elevacioun of
the pool artik in that same regioun.
Another conclusioun to prove the latitude
of the regioun.

Understond wel that the latitude of eny
place in a regioun is verrely the space bytwixe
the cenyth of hem that dwellen there and the
equinoxiall cercle north or south, takyng the
mesure in the meridional lyne, as shewith in
the almykanteras of thin Astrelabye. And thilke
space is as much as the pool artike is high in
that same place fro the orisonte. And than is
the depressioun of the pool antartik, that
is to seyn, than is the pool antartik, bynethe
the orisonte the same quantite of
space neither more ne lasse.
Than if thou desire to knowe this latitude
of the regioun, tak the altitude of the sonne
in the myddel of the day, whan the sonne is
in the hevedes of Aries or of Libra; for than
moeveth the sonne in the lyne equinoxiall;
and abate the nombre of that same sonnes altitude
out of degrees, and than is the
remenaunt of the nombre that leveth
the latitude of the regioun. As thus:
I suppose that the sonne is thilke day at
noon degrees of height; abate than
degrees oute of ; so leveth there ; than is
degrees the latitude. I say not this but for
ensample; for wel I wot the latitude of Oxenford
is certeyn minutes lasse; thow might
preve the same.
Now yf so be that the semeth to longe a
tarieng to abide til that the sonne be in the
hevedes of Aries or of Libra, than wayte
whan the sonne is in eny othir degre of the
zodiak, and considre the degre of his declinacioun
fro the equinoxiall lyne; and if it so be
that the sonnes declinacioun be northward fro
the equinoxiall, abate than fro the sonnes altitude
at non the nombre of his declinacioun,
and than hast thou the height of the hevedes
of Aries and Libra. As thus: My sonne
is peraventure in the degre of Leoun,
almost degrees of height at non,
and his declinacioun is almost degrees
northward fro the equinoxiall; abate than thilke
degrees of declinacioun out of the altitude
at non; than leveth there degrees and odde
minutes. Lo there the heved of Aries or Libra
and thin equinoxiall in that regioun. Also if
so be that the sonnes declinacioun be southward
fro the equinoxiall, adde than thilke
declinacioun to the altitude of the sonne at
noon, and tak there the hevedes of Aries
and Libra and thin equinoxial; abate than the
height of the equinoxial out of degrees;
than leveth there the distance of the pool of
that regioun fro the equinoxiall. Or elles, if
the list, tak the highest altitude fro the equinoxial
of eny sterre fix that thou knowist, and
tak his netherest elongacioun (lengthing) fro
the same equinoxial lyne, and work in the
manere forseid.
Declaracioun of the ascensioun of
signes.

The excellence of the spere solide, amonges
othir noble conclusiouns, shewith manyfest the
diverse ascenciouns of signes in diverse places,
as wel in the right cercle as in the embelif
cercle. These auctours writen that thilke signe
is cleped of right ascensioun with which more
part of the cercle equinoxiall and lasse part of
the zodiak ascendith. and thilke signe ascendith
embelif with which lasse part of the
equinoxiall and more part of the zodiak
ascendith. Ferther-over, they seyn that in
thilke cuntrey where as the senith of hem that
dwellen there is in the equinoxial lyne, and
her orisonte passyng by the two poles of this
world, thilke folk han this right cercle and
the right orisonte; and evermore the arch of
the day and the arch of the night is there ilike
longe; and the sonne twies every yer passing
thorugh the cenith of hir heed, and two
someres and two wynters in a yer han these
forseide peple. And the almycanteras in
her Astrelabyes ben streight as a lyne, so as
shewith in the figure.
The utilite to knowe the ascensions of signes
in the right cercle is this: Truste wel that
by mediacioun of thilke ascensions these astrologiens,
by her tables and her instrumentes,
knowen verreily the ascensioun of every degre
and minute in all the zodiak in the embelif
cercle, as shal be shewed. And nota that
this forseide right orisonte, that is clepid
Orison Rectum, dividith the equinoxial into
right angles; and the embelif orisonte, where
as the pool is enhaunced upon the orisonte,
overkervith the equinoxiall in embilif angles,
as shewith in the figure.
This is the conclusioun to knowe the
ascensions of signes in the right cercle, that is
circulus directus.

Set the heved of what signe the lyst to knowe
his ascendyng in the right cercle upon the lyne
meridionall, and wayte where thyn almury
touchith the bordure, and set there a prikke;
turne than thy riet westward til that the ende
of the forseide signe sitte upon the meridional
lyne and eftsonys wayte where thin almury
touchith the bordure, and set there another
pricke. Rekene than the nombre of degres
in the bordure bitwixe bothe prikkes, and
tak the ascensioun of the signe in the right
cercle. And thus maist thou werke with every
porcioun of thy zodiak.
To knowe the ascensions of signes in the
embelif cercle in every regioun, I mene, in
circulo obliquo.

Set the heved of the signe which as the list
to knowe his ascensioun upon the est orisonte,
and wayte where thin almury touchith the bordure,
and there set a prikke. Turne than thy
riet upward til that the ende of the same signe
sitte upon the est orisonte, and wayte eftsonys
where as thin almury touchith the bordure,
and set there a nother prikke. Rekene than
the nombre of degrees in the bordure bitwyxe
bothe prikkes and tak there the ascensioun
of the signe in the embelif cercle.
And understond wel that alle the signes in thy
zodiak, fro the heved of Aries unto the ende
of Virgo, ben clepid signes of the north fro
the equinoxiall. And these signes arisen bitwyxe
the verrey est and the verrey north in
oure orisonte generaly for evere. And alle the
signes fro the heved of Libra unto the ende
of Pisces ben clepid signes of the south fro
the equinoxial; and these signes arisen
evermore bitwixe the verrey est and the
verrey south in oure orisonte. Also every signe
bitwixe the heved of Capricorne unto the ende
of Geminis arisith on oure orisonte in lasse
than houres equales. And these same signes
fro the heved of Capricorne unto the ende of
Geminis ben cleped tortuose signes, or croked
signes, for thei arise embelyf on oure orisonte.
And these croked signes ben obedient to
the signes that ben of right ascensioun.
The signes of right ascencioun ben fro the
heved of Cancer unto the ende of Sagittarie;
and these signes arisen more upright, and thei
ben called eke sovereyn signes and everich of
hem arisith in more space than houres. Of
whiche signes Gemini obeieth to Cancer, and
Taurus to Leo, Aries to Virgo, Pisces to Libra,
Aquarius to Scorpioun, and Capricorne to Sagittarie.
And thus evermore signes that
ben ilike fer fro the heved of Capricorne
obeyen everich of hem to othir.
To knowe justly the quarters of the
world, as Est, West, North, and South.

Tak the altitude of thy sonne whan the list,
and note wel the quarter of the world in which
the sonne is for the tyme by the azymutz.
Turne than thin Astrelabie, and set the degre
of the sonne in the almykanteras of his altitude
on thilke syde that the sonne stant, as is the
manere in takyng of houres, and ley thy label
on the degre of the sonne; and rekene how
many degrees of the bordure ben bitwixe
the lyne meridional and the point of thy
label, and note wel that nombre. Turne
than ageyn thin Astrelabie, and set the point
of thy gret rule there thou takist thin altitudes
upon as many degrees in his bordure fro his
meridional as was the point of thy label fro
the lyne meridional on the wombe side. Take
than thin Astrelabie with bothe hondes sadly
and slighly, and let the sonne shyne thorugh
bothe holes of thy rule, and slighly in thilke
shynyng lat thin Astrelabie kouche adoun
evene upon a smothe ground, and than wol
the verrey lyne meridional of thin Astrelabie
lye evene south, and the est lyne wol lye est,
and the west lyne west, and the north lyne
north, so that thou worke softly and avysely
in the kouching. And thus hast thou the
quarters of the firmament.
To knowe the latitude of planetes fro
the wey of the sonne, whethir so they be north
or south fro the forseide wey.

Loke whan that a planete is in the lyne
meridional, yf that hir altitude be of the same
height that is the degre of the sonne for that
day, and than is the planete in the verrey wey
of the sonne and hath no latitude. And if the
altitude of the planete be heigher than the
degre of the sonne, than is the planete north
fro the wey of the sonne such a quantite of
latitude as shewith by thin almykanteras.
And if the altitude of the planete be lasse
than the degre of the sonne, than is the
planete south fro the wey of the sonne such
a quantite of latitude as shewith by thin
almykanteras. This is to seyn, fro the wey
where as the sonne went thilke day, but not
fro the wey of the sonne in every place of the
zodiak.
To knowe the cenyth of the arising of
the sonne, this is to seyn, the partie of the
orisonte in which that the sonne arisith.

Thou must first considere that the sonne arisith
not alwey verrey est, but somtyme by northe
the est and somtyme by south the est. Sothly
the sonne arisith nevere moo verrey est in oure
orisonte, but he be in the heved of Aries or
Libra. Now is thin orisonte departed in parties
by thin azimutes in significacioun of parties
of the world; al be it so that shipmen rekene
thilke parties in . Than is there no
more but wayte in which azimut that thy
sonne entrith at his arisyng, and take there
the cenith of the arisyng of the sonne.
The manere of the divisioun of thin Astrelabie
is this, I mene as in this cas: First
it is divided in plages principalis with the
lyne that goth from est to west; and than with
another lyne that goth fro south to north; than
is it divided in smale parties of azymutz, as est,
and est by south, where as is the first azymut
above the est lyne; and so furth fro
partie to partie til that thou come ageyn
unto the est lyne. Thus maist thou understonde
also the cenyth of eny sterre, in which partie
he riseth.
To knowe in which partie of the firmament
is the conjunccyoun.

Considere the tyme of the conjunccyoun by
the kalender, as thus: Loke hou many houres
thilke conjunccioun is fro the midday of the
day precedent, as shewith by the canon of
thy kalender. Rekene than thilke nombre of
houres in the bordure of thin Astrelabie, as
thou art wont to do in knowyng of the houres
of the day or of the nyght, and ley thy label
over the degre of the sonne, and than wol
the point of thy label sitte upon the houre
of the conjunccioun. Loke than in which
azymut the degre of thy sonne sittith, and in
that partie of the firmament is the conjunccioun.
To knowe the cenyth of the altitude of
the sonne.

This is no more to seyn but eny tyme of
the day tak the altitude of the sonne, and by
the azymut in which he stondith maist thou
seen in which partie of the firmament he is.
And the same wise maist thou seen by night,
of eny sterre, wheither the sterre sitte est or
west, or north or south, or eny partie bitwene,
after the name of the azimut in which is the
sterre.
To knowe sothly the degre of the longitude
of the mone, or of eny planete that hath
no latitude for the tyme fro the ecliptik lyne.

Tak the altitude of the mone, and rekne thy
altitude up among thyn almykanteras on
which syde that the mone stondith, and set
there a prikke. Tak than anon-right upon the
mones syde the altitude of eny sterre fix which
that thou knowist, and set his centre upon his
altitude among thyn almykanteras there the
sterre is founde. Wayte than which degre of
the zodiak touchith the prykke of the altitude
of the mone, and tak there the degre
in which the mone stondith. This conclusioun
is verrey soth, yf the sterres in thin
Astrelabie stonden after the trouthe. Comoun
tretes of the Astrelabie ne maken non excepcioun
whether the mone have latitude or
noon, ne on wheyther syde of the mone the
altitude of the sterre fixe be taken.
And nota that yf the mone shewe himself
by light of day, than maist thou worche
this same conclusioun by the sonne, as wel
as by the fixe sterre.
This is the worchinge of the conclusioun
to knowe yf that eny planete be direct
or retrograd.

Tak the altitude of eny sterre that is clepid
a planete, and note it wel; and tak eke anon
the altitude of any sterre fix that thou knowist,
and note it wel also. Com than ageyn the
thridde or the fourthe nyght next folewing, for
than shalt thou perceyve wel the moeving of
a planete, wheither so he moeve forward or
bakward. Awayte wel than whan that thy
sterre fixe is in the same altitude that she
was whan thou toke hir firste altitude.
And tak than eft-sones the altitude of the
forseide planete and note it wel; for truste wel
yf so be that the planete be on the right syde
of the meridional lyne, so that his secunde altitude
be lasse than hys first altitude was, than
is the planete direct; and yf he be on the west
syde in that condicioun, than is he retrograd.
And yf so be that this planete be upon the est
side whan his altitude is ytaken, so that his
secunde altitude be more than his first altitude,
than is he retrograd. And if he be on
the west syde, than is he direct. But the contrarie
of these parties is of the cours of the
mone; for certis the mone moeveth the contrarie
from othre planetes as in hir epicicle, but
in noon othir manere.
The conclusioun of equaciouns of
houses after the Astrelabie.

Set the begynnyng of the degre that ascendith
upon the ende of the houre inequal; than
wol the begynnyng of the hous sitte upon
the lyne of mydnight. Remeve than the degre
that ascendith, and set him on the ende of the
houre inequal, and than wol the begynnyng
of the hous sitte up on the mydnight lyne.
Bring up ageyn the same degre that ascended
first, and set him upon the est orisonte, and
than wol the begynnyng of the hous sitte
upon the lyne of mydnight. Tak than the
nader of the degre that first ascendid, and set
him on the ende of the houre inequal; and
than wol the begynnyng of the hous sitte
upon the lyne of mydnight. Set than the nader
of the ascendent on the ende of the houre
inequal, and than wol the begynnyng of the
hous sitte on the mydnight lyne. The begynnyng
of the hous is nader of the ascendent,
and the begynnyng of the hous
is nader of the , and the begynnyng
of the hous is nader of the , and the begynnyng
of the hous is nader of the ,
and the begynnyng of the hous is nader
of the , and the begynnyng of the hous
is nader of the .
Another maner of equaciouns of houses
by the Astrelabye.

Tak thin ascendent, and than hast thou thy
angles; for wel thou wost that the opposit
of thin ascendent, that is to seyn, the begynnyng
of the hous, sitt upon the west orisonte,
and the begynnyng of the hous sitt upon
the lyne meridional, and his opposyt upon the
lyne of mydnight. Than ley thy label over the
degre that ascendith, and rekne fro the point
of thy label alle the degrees in the bordure
tyl thou come to the meridional lyne; and
departe alle thilke degrees in evene parties,
and take there the evene equacions of
houses; for ley thy label over everich of these
parties, and than maist thou se by thy label,
in the zodiak, the begynnyng of everich
of these same houses fro the ascendent; that
is to seyn, the begynnyng of the hous next
above thin ascendent, the begynnyng of the
hous, and than the upon the meridional
lyne, as I first seide. The same wise
worch thou fro the ascendent doun to the
lyne of mydnyght, and thus hast thou othre
houses; that is to seyn, the begynnyng of
the , and the , and the hous. Than is the
nader of these houses the begynnyng of the
houses that folewen.
To fynde the lyne meridional to dwelle
fix in eny certeyn place.

Tak a round plate of metal; for werpyng,
the brodder the better; and make there upon
a just compas a lite within the bordure. And
ley this rounde plate upon an evene ground,
or on an evene ston, or on an evene stok fix
in the ground; and ley it evene by a level.
And in the centre of the compas styke an
evene pyn, or a wyr, upright, the smaller the
better; set thy pyn by a plom-rule evene
upright, and let this pyn be no lenger than
a quarter of the dyametre of thy compas,
fro the centre amiddes. And wayte bisely
aboute or of the clokke, whan the sonne
shineth, whan the shadewe of the pyn entrith
enythyng within the cercle of thy compas an
heer-mele; and marke there a pricke with inke.
Abid than stille waityng on the sonne til after
of the clokke, til that the shadwe of the wyr,
or of the pyn, passe enything out of the
cercle of the compas, be it nevere so lyte,
and set there another pricke of ynke. Tak
than a compas, and mesure evene the myddel
bitwixe bothe prickes, and set there a prikke.
Tak me than a rule and draw a strike evene
a-lyne, fro the pyn unto the middel prikke; and
tak there thi lyne meridional for evermore, as
in that same place. And yif thou drawe a
cross-lyne overthwart the compas justly over
the lyne meridional, than hast thou est and
west and south, and par consequens,
the opposit of the south lyne, i.e. the north.
Descripcion of the meridional lyne, of
longitudes and latitudes of citees and townes,
as wel as of climates.

Thys lyne meridional is but a maner descripcioun,
or lyne ymagined, that passith upon the
poles of this world and by the cenyth of oure
heved. And it is cleped the lyne meridional,
for in what place that eny man is at any tyme
of the yer, whan that the sonne, by mevynge
of the firmament, cometh to his verrey meridian
place, than is it verrey mydday, that we clepen
oure non, as to thilke man. And therfore
is it clepid the lyne of midday. And nota
that evermore of eny cytes or of townes,
of which that oo town approchith ner toward
the est than doth that othir town, trust
wel that thilke townes han diverse meridians.
Nota also that the arch of the equinoxial that
is contened or bownded bitwixe the meridians
is clepid the longitude of the toun. And
yf so be that two townes have ilike meridian
or oon meridian, than is the distaunce of
hem bothe ilike fer fro the est, and the contrarie;
and in this manere thei change not
her meridian. But sothly thei chaungen her
almykanteras, for the enhaunsyng of the pool
and the distance of the sonne.
The longitude of a climat is a lyne ymagined
fro est to west ilike distant fro the equinoxiall.
And the latitude of a climat may be
cleped the space of the erthe fro the begynnyng
of the first clymat unto the verrey
ende of the same clymat evene direct
ageyns the pool artyke. Thus sayn somme
auctours; and somme of hem sayn that yf men
clepe the latitude of a cuntrey the arch meridian
that is contened or intercept bitwix the
cenyth and the equinoxial, than say they that
the distance fro the equinoxial unto the ende
of a clymat evene ageynst the pool artik is the
latitude of a clymat forsoothe.
To knowe with which degre of the zodiak
that eny planete ascendith on the orisonte,
wheither so that his latitude be north
or south.

Know by thin almenak the degre of the
ecliptik of eny signe in which that the planete
is rekned for to be, and that is clepid the
degre of his longitude. And know also the
degre of his latitude fro the ecliptik north or
south. And by these ensamples folewynge in
speciall maist thou worche in general in every
signe of the zodiak:
The degree of the longitude peraventure
of Venus or of another planete was of
Capricorne, and the latitude of him was
northward degrees fro the ecliptik lyne. Than
tok I a subtil compas, and clepid that oo point
of my compas A, and that other point F. Than
tok I the point of A and sette it in the ecliptik
lyne in my zodiak in the degre of the longitude
of Venus, that is to seyn, in the degre
of Capricorne; and than sette I the point of
F upward in the same signe by cause that
latitude was north upon the latitude of
Venus, that is to seyn, in the degre fro the
heved of Capricorne; and thus have I degrees
bitwixe my two prickes. Than leide I down
softly my compas, and sette the degre of the
longitude upon the orisonte; tho tok I and
waxed my label in manere of a peire tables to
receyve distinctly the prickes of my compas.
Tho tok I thys forseide label, and leyde it fix
over the degre of my longitude; tho tok I
up my compas and sette the point of A in
the wax on my label, as evene as I koude
gesse, over the ecliptik lyne in the ende of the
longitude, and sette the point of F endelong
in my label upon the space of the latitude,
inward and over the zodiak, that is to seyn
northward fro the ecliptik. Than leide I doun
my compas, and loked wel in the wey upon
the prickes of A and of F; tho turned I my ryet
til that the pricke of F satt upon the orisonte;
than saw I wel that the body of
Venus in hir latitude of degrees septemtrionals
ascendid, in the ende of the degre,
fro the heved of Capricorne.
And nota that in this manere maist thou
worche with any latitude septemtrional in alle
signes. But sothly the latitude meridional of
a planete in Capricorne ne may not be take by
cause of the litel space bitwixe the ecliptyk
and the bordure of the Astrelabie; but
sothely in all othre signes it may.
Also the degre peraventure of Jupiter, or of
another planete, was in the first degre of Piscis
in longitude, and his latitude was degrees
meridional; tho tok I the point of A and sette
it in the first degre of Piscis on the ecliptik;
and than sette I the point of F dounward in
the same signe by cause that the latitude was
south degres, that is to seyn, fro the heved
of Piscis; and thus have I degres bitwixe
bothe prikkes. Than sette I the degre of
the longitude upon the orisonte; tho tok I
my label, and leide it fix upon the degre of the
longitude; tho sette I the point of A on my
label evene over the ecliptik lyne in the ende
of the degre of the longitude, and sette the
point of F endlong in my label the space of
degres of the latitude outward fro the zodiak
(this is to seyn southward fro the ecliptik toward
the bordure), and turned my riet
til that the pricke of F saat upon the orisonte.
Than say I wel that the body of
Jupiter in his latitude of degrees meridional
ascendid with degres of Piscis in horoscopo.
And in this manere maist thou worche with
any latitude meridional, as I first seide, save in
Capricorne. And yif thou wilt pleye this craft
with the arisyng of the mone, loke thou rekne
wel hir cours houre by houre, for she ne dwellith
not in a degre of hir longitude but litel
while, as thow wel knowist. But natheles
yf thou rekne hir verrey moevyng by thy
tables houre after houre, [thou shalt do wel
ynow].
Umbra Recta.
Yif it so be that thou wilt werke by umbra
recta, and thou may come to the bas of the
tour, in this maner shalt thou werke. Tak the
altitude of the tour by bothe holes, so that
thy rewle ligge even in a poynt. Ensample as
thus: I see him thorw at the poynt of ; than
mete I the space betwixe me and the tour,
and I finde it foot; than beholde I how
is to , right so is the space betwixe thee
and the tour to the altitude of the tour.
For is the thridde part of , so is the
space between thee and the tour the thridde
part of the altitude of the tour; than thryes
foot is the heyghte of the tour, with adding of
thyn owne persone to thyn eye. And this rewle
is general in umbra recta, fro the poynt of
oon to . And yif thy rewle falle upon , than
is -partyes of the heyght the space between
thee and the tour; with adding of
thyn owne heyghte.
Umbra Versa.
Another maner of the werkinge, by umbra
versa. Yif so be that thou may nat come to
the bas of the tour, I see him thorw at the nombre
of ; I sette ther a prikke at my fot; than
go I neer to the tour, and I see him thorw at
the poynt of , and there I sette another prikke;
and I beholde how hath him to , and ther
finde I that it hath him twelfe sythes; than
beholde I how hath him to , and thou
shalt finde it sexe sythes; than thou shalt
finde that passith by the numbre of
; right so is the space between thy two prikkes
the space of tymes thyn altitude. And note,
that at the ferste altitude of , thou settest a
prikke; and afterward, whan thou seest him at
, ther thou settest another prikke; than thou
findest betwyx thes two prikkys foot; than
thou shalt finde that is the -party of .
And then is feet the altitude of the tour.
For other poyntis, yif it fille in umbra versa,
as thus: I sette caas it fill upon , and at
the secunde upon ; than schalt thou finde
that is partyes of ; and is partyes of
; than passeth , by nombre of ; so is the
space between two prikkes twyes the heyghte
of the tour. And yif the differens were thryes,
than shulde it be three tymes; and thus mayst
thou werke fro to ; and yif it be , tymes;
or , tymes; et sic de ceteris.
Umbra Recta.
Another maner of wyrking, by umbra recta:
Yif it so be that thou mayst nat come to the
baas of the tour, in this maner thou schalt
werke. Set thy rewle upon till thou see the
altitude, and set at thy foot a prikke. Than
set thy rewle upon , and behold what is the
differense between and , and thou shalt
finde that it is . Than mete the space between
two prikkes, and that is the partie
of the altitude of the tour. And yif ther
were , it were the partye; and yif ther
were , the partye; et sic deinceps. And
note, yif it were , it were the party of ;
and , party of ; and note, at the altitude
of thy conclusion, adde the stature of thyn
heyghte to thyn eye.
  Another maner conclusion, to knowe
the mene mote and the argumentis of any
planete. To know the mene mote and the argumentis
of every planete fro yeer to yeer, from
day to day, from houre to houre, and from
smale fraccionis infinite.

In this maner shalt thou worche; consider
thy rote first, the whiche is made the beginning
of the tables fro the yer of oure Lord
, and enter hit into thy slate for the laste
meridie of December; and than consider the
yer of oure Lord, what is the date, and behold
whether thy date be more or lasse than the
yer . And yf hit so be that hit be more,
loke how many yeres hit passeth, and with
so many enter into thy tables in the first
lyne theras is writen anni collecti et expansi.
And loke where the same planet is
writen in the hed of thy table, and than loke
what thou findest in direct of the same yer of
oure Lord which is passid, be hit , or , or
, or what nombre that evere it be, til the
tyme that thou come to , or , or . And
that thou findest in direct wryt in thy slate under
thy rote, and adde hit togeder, and that is
thy mene mote, for the laste meridian of
the December, for the same yer which that
thou hast purposed. And if hit so be that hit
passe , consider wel that fro to ben
anni expansi, and fro to ben anni collecti;
and if thy nomber passe , than tak that
thou findest in direct of , and if hit be more,
as or , than tak that thou findest in direct
thereof, that is to sayen, signes, degrees, minutes,
and secoundes, and adde togedere
unto thy rote; and thus to make rotes. And
note, that if hit so be that the yer of oure
Lord be lasse than the rote, which is the yer
of oure Lord , than shalt thou wryte in
the same wyse first thy rote in thy slate, and
after enter into thy table in the same yer that
be lasse, as I taught before; and than consider
how many signes, degrees, minutes, and secoundes
thyn entringe conteyneth. And so be
that ther be entrees, than adde hem togeder,
and after withdraw hem from the
rote, the yer of oure Lord ; and the
residue that leveth is thy mene mote for the
laste meridie of December, the whiche thou
hast purposid; and if hit so be that thou wolt
witen thy mene mote for any day, or for any
fraccioun of day, in this maner thou shalt
worche. Make thy rote fro the laste day of
December in the maner as I have taught,
and afterward behold how many monethes,
dayes, and houres ben passid from the
meridie of December, and with that enter
with the laste moneth that is ful passed, and
take that thou findest in direct of him, and
wryt hit in thy slate; and enter with as mony
dayes as be more, and wryt that thou findest
in direct of the same planete that thou worchest
for; and in the same wyse in the table of
houres, for houres that ben passed, and adde
alle these to thy rote; and the residue is the
mene mote for the same day and the same
houre.
Another manere to knowe the mene
mote.

Whan thou wolt make the mene mote of eny
planete to be by Arsechieles tables, tak thy
rote, the which is for the yer of oure Lord
; and if so be that thy yer be passid the
date, wryt that date, and than wryt the nomber
of the yeres. Than withdraw the yeres
out of the yeres that ben passed that rote.
Ensampul as thus: the yer of oure Lord ,
I wolde wyten, precise, my rote; than wrot
I first . And under that nomber I
wrot a ; than withdrow I the laste
nomber out of that, and than fond I the residue
was yer; I wiste that yer was passed
fro the rote, the which was writen in my
tables. Than afterward soghte I in my tables
the annis collectis et expansis, and among myn
expanse yeres fond I yeer. Than tok I alle
the signes, degrees, and minutes, that I fond
direct under the same planete that I
wroghte for, and wrot so many signes,
degrees, and minutes in my slate, and afterward
added I to signes, degrees, minutes, and
secoundes, the whiche I fond in my rote the
yer of oure Lord ; and kepte the residue;
and than had I the mene mote for the laste
day of December. And if thou woldest wete
the mene mote of any planete in March, April,
or May, other in any other tyme or moneth of
the yer, loke how many monethes and
dayes ben passed from the laste day of December,
the yer of oure Lord ; and so
with monethis and dayes enter into thy table
ther thou findest thy mene mote iwriten in
monethes and dayes, and tak alle the signes,
degrees, minutes, and secoundes that thou findest
ywrite in direct of thy monethes, and adde
to signes, degrees, minutes, and secoundes that
thou findest with thy rote the yer of oure
Lord , and the residue that leveth is the
mene mote for that same day. And note,
if hit so be that thou woldest wite the mene
mote in any yer that is lasse than thy rote,
withdraw the nomber of so many yeres as hit
is lasse than the yer of oure Lord a , and
kep the residue; and so many yeres, monethes,
and dayes enter into thy tables of thy mene
mote. And tak alle the signes, degrees, and
minutes, and secoundes, that thou findest in
direct of alle the yeres, monethes, and
dayes, and wryt hem in thy slate; and
above thilke nomber wryt the signes, degrees,
minutes, and secoundes, the which thou
findest with thy rote the yer of oure Lord a
; and withdraw alle the nethere signes
and degrees fro the signes and degrees, minutes,
and secoundes of other signes with thy
rote; and thy residue that leveth is thy mene
mote for that day.
For to knowe at what houre of the day,
or of the night, shal be flod or ebbe.

First wite thou certeinly, hou that haven
stondeth, that thou list to werke for; that is
to say in which place of the firmament the
mone beyng, makith full see. Than awayte
thou redily in what degree of the zodiak that
the mone at that tyme is ynne. Bring furth
than the label, and set the point therof in
that same cost that the mone makith flod, and
set thou there the degree of the mone according
with the egge of the label. Than
afterward awayte where is than the degree
of the sonne, at that tyme. Remeve thou than
the label fro the mone, and bring and set it
justly upon the degree of the sonne. And the
point of the label shal than declare to thee, at
what houre of the day or of the night shal
be flod. And there also maist thou wite by the
same point of the label, whethir it be, at that
same tyme, flod or ebbe, or half flod, or
quarter flod, or ebbe, or half or quarter
ebbe; or ellis at what houre it was last, or
shal be next by night or by day, thou than
shalt esely knowe, &c. Furthermore, if it so
be that thou happe to worke for this matere
aboute the tyme of the conjunccioun, bring
furth the degree of the mone with the label
to that coste as it is before seyd. But than thou
shalt understonde that thou may not bringe
furth the label fro the degree of the mone
as thou dide before; for-why the sonne is
than in the same degree with the mone.
And so thou may at that tyme by the point of
the label unremevid knowe the houre of the
flod or of the ebbe, as it is before seyd, &c.
And evermore as thou findest the mone passe
fro the sonne, so remeve thou the label than
fro the degree of the mone, and bring it to
the degree of the sonne. And work thou than
as thou dide before, &c. Or ellis know
thou what houre it is that thou art inne,
by thyn instrument. Than bring thou furth
fro thennes the label and ley it upon the degree
of the mone, and therby may thou wite
also whan it was flod, or whan it wol be next,
be it night or day; &c.

* Wikipedia: Nicholas of Lynne:
Nicholas was apparently born in the Norfolk port town of King's Lynn (then "Bishop's Lynn"), possibly as early as 1330, although the confirmed details of his career suggest that a date closer to 1360 is more likely. According to early 16th century literary historian John Bale, he became a Carmelite friar and moved to the university town of Oxford, where he developed a great reputation for his scientific work. In 1386, at the request of the powerful lord John of Gaunt, he published a Kalendarium of detailed astronomical tables covering the years 1387–1462. It survives in sixteen manuscripts and one printed edition. Designed for use in the astrologically-based science of the time, the tables were very sophisticated, even including rules for synchronising medical treatment with astronomical cycles, such as the right phases of the moon for blood-letting. His contemporary Geoffrey Chaucer wrote very approvingly of Nicholas' work, and made much use of it. Nicholas was also supposedly an excellent musician. Later in life he moved to Cambridge, where he was promoted to subdeacon in 1410 and to deacon in 1411. The date of his death is unknown.