HUGH OF BALMA AND JULIAN OF NORWICH
THE INFLUENCE OF HIS VIAE SION LUGENT ON HER SHOWING OF LOVE
If thou intendest and seekest nothing else but the good pleasure of God and the profit of thy neighbour, thou wilt enjoy internal liberty. If thy heart were right, then every creature would be to thee as a mirror of life and a book of holy doctrine.UGH of Balma was a thirteenth-century Carthusian1 whose Viae Sion lugent proliferated in manuscripts throughout Europe, being valued as a guide to contemplative prayer, especially by Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa. Much of what Hugh writes is also reflected in Julian of Norwich's Showing of Love and in other texts possibly by her, as well as in the Cloud Author's works. Cardinal Adam Easton may have used Hugh of Balma during his spiritual direction of Julian of Norwich, Hugh's text being a commentary on the writings of Pseudo-Dionysius, whose Opera Adam owned in a magnificent thirteenth-century Victorine manuscript and whom the Middle Ages considered to be Dionysius of the Areopagus and St Denis of Paris. Julian's use of Pseudo-Dionysius appears to be filtered through Hugh of Balma's treatise for contemplatives; she names Dionysius in her Long Text:2
Ove tu non voglia nè cerchi altro che il beneplacito di Dio, e il vantaggio del prossimo, godrai della libertà interiore. Se il tuo cuore fosse retto, ogni creatura ti sarebbe specchio di vita, e libro di santa dottrina.
De Imitatione Christi II:4
Seynt dyo=The prayer to the Trinity as Wisdom in the Mystica Theologia is illuminated in Adam Easton’s manuscript of Pseudo-Dionysius with a most lovely Romanesque T in gold leaf, lapis lazuli blue and leafy green intertwines. Easton was a Benedictine of Norwich's Cathedral of the Holy and Undivided Trinity's Priory. The Cloud Author translates this invocation as:
nisi of france . whych was that tyme
a paynim .
This is Seinte Deionise Preier, Thou vnbigonne & euerlastyng Wysdome. the which in thiself arte the souereyn-substancyal Firstheed, the souereyn Goddesse, & the souereyn Good, the inliche beholder of the godliche maad wisdome of Cristen men.'3
Cambridge University Library Ii.III.32, fol. 108v
Julian, again and again, uses this Pseudo-Dionysian Trinitarian theology, such as we also find in Dante Alighieri, Inferno III.5-6: FACEMI LA DIVINA PODESTATE, LA SOMMA SAPIENZA, E'L PRIMO AMORE, where God is Might, Wisdom, and Love.
The intent of this essay is to demonstrate the strong parallels between Hugh of Balma's Pseudo-Dionysian Viae Sion lugent and Julian of Norwich's Showing of Love.
Hugh of Balma's Prologue first speaks of the roads of Jerusalem mourning because no one comes to the solemn feast, quoting Lamentations 1.4. Julian's Showing often speaks of the solemn feast, most notably in the Long Text, PVI.xiv.29.
¶ AndHugh continues to speak of the people's restlessness while pursuing idols of knowledge, rather than the God of Wisdom. Julian likewise speaks against our restlessness until we rest in God (W75, PI.v.10):
in thys my vnderstondyng was lyftyd
vppe in to hevyn . wher I saw our lor=
de god . as a lorde in his owne how=
se . whych lorde hayth callyd alle hys
derewurthy frendes to a solempne
.ffor this is the cause whyHugh expands on this in his second paragraph:
that we be not all in ese of harte
& soule . for we seke here reste .
In this thyng that is so lytyll where
no reste is in. and know not our
god that is allmyghty . all wise
& all good . for he is verey reste . (W75)
For God did not intend that the soul he created should be stuffed so full of sheepskin copybooks that his goodness is pushed aside; rather, he intended the soul as the seat of wisdom where the heavenly city's king of peace, namely God the Most High, might reside. This wisdom - which is known as 'mystical theology' and was set forth by Paul the Apostle and written down by Denis the Areopagite his disciple - is the same wisdom that stretches toward God by love's longing. As far as the east is from the west, so incomparably does mystical wisdom excel all created knowledge. For the learned of this world teach other kinds of knowledge, but the human spirit can learn this wisdom only from God directly, not from any mortal man.4Julian, like Hugh, will use this image the seat of wisdom as the city in the soul throughout her text (W101v, PXIV.liv.113v, XVI.lxviii.143v-146v, A102v-103, A112, 112v):
And then oure good lorde opyn=In his third paragraph Hugh further descants upon this theme:
nyd my gostley eye. and shewde
me my soule in the myddys of my harte .
I saw the soul . so large as it were an
endlesse warde . and also as it were
a blessyd kyngdom . and by the condiciouns
that I saw there in I vnderstode that it is
a wurschypfulle citte ¶ In myddes
of that cytte oure lorde Jhesu very god
and very man . a feyer person and
of large stature hyghest bysshoppe
most solempne kynge . wurschypfullest
lorde . and I saw him clothyd solem=
ply in wurshyppes . he syttyth in the
soule evyn ryghte in peas and rest
and he rulyth and 3evyth heven and
erth and all that is. (P143v)
Mystical theology is written in the heart by divine illuminations and heavenly dews; creaturely knowledge is written on parchment with a goose quill and ink. Mystical theology says: 'Enough!' for through this wisdom the human mind finds the source of everything, namely God the Creator, and rests most intimately in the one who is the fountain of all goodness and happiness. Creaturely knowledge, in truth, never says 'Enough!' for we rightly conclude that the person who cares not for highest wisdom strays from highest truth, like a blind man enveloped in darkness. Thus the infatuated soul stuffed full of human discoveries takes many detours (p. 70).Julian often used the concept and the word 'Enough' (W75v, 86, PI.v.10v, XIII.xxxvi.65v, XVI.lxxix.164v, A99, 105v).
God of thy goodnes geue me thy selfe for thouShe then, following the same sequence as did Hugh, speaks against the use of 'many means' in prayer (W76v, PI.vi.11):
art Inough to me . and I maie aske nothing
that is lesse that maie be full worshippe to
thee . and if I aske anie thing that is lesse
ever me wanteth, but only in thee I haue
all . (P10v)
how that we vse for vnknowing of loueHugh further explains that an illiterate lay person can study in God's school this highest wisdom more easily than can a philosopher, scholar or secular master, adding later that
to make menie meanes . . .
¶ ffor if we make all the=
se meanes it is to litle and not fulwor=
shippe to god . but in his goodnes is all
the hole . and ther fayleth right nought (P10v,11)
For love alone teaches most inwardly what neither Aristotle nor Plato nor any other mortal philosophy or science ever could or ever can understand (p. 71).and that
It is better to be a learner in mystical wisdom, with God as teacher, than a master who perfectly understands one of the liberal arts, a skilled craftsman or practiced architect in one of the mechanical arts (p. 72).Julian, who speaks throughout her text of the 'lesson of love', states that her learning concerning her Showing of the Lord and the Servant is in three stages (PXIV.li.96):
¶ Thereflecting the three ways to God which Hugh described (the first by cleansing, the second by inspiring, the third by 'oneing'), as the Purgative, Illuminative and Unitive Ways, adding that reaching these is like building a medieval bridge, where first a wooden framework is put in place, next the arching stones knit together on top of it, then the frame taken away, leaving the sturdy soaring bridge intact (pp. 70, 166). As in Julian, Hugh's Unitive Way is both unitive in itself and also 'oned' with all that has gone before. Catherine of Siena will use a similar image of a bridge for her contemplation in the Dialogues, though without the engineering exactness.5
furst is the begynnyng of teching that
I vnderstode ther in in the same tyme
¶ The secunde is the inwarde ler=
nyng that I haue vnderstonde there
in sythen ¶ The thyrde is alle the
hole revelation fro the begynnyng to
the ende . whych oure lorde god of his
goodnes bryngyth oftymes frely to
the syght of my vnderstondyng ¶ And
theyse thre be so onyd as to my vnder=
stondyng that I can nott nor may
deperte them .
Following upon this, Hugh speaks of the Psalms' 'Justice and judgment are the preparation of your throne' (Psalm 88.15/89.14, Hugh, pp. 71, 73), later adding to this 'The soul of the just is the seat of wisdom' (Wisdom 7.27, Proverbs 10.25b, Hugh, p. 74), stressed also in the Norwich Castle Manuscript6 (which is possibly Julian's), fol. 78v:
Anima iusti sedes est sapiencie. ffor as seith holy write the soule of the ry3tful man or womman is the see & dwelling of endeles wisdom that is goddis sone swete ihesu If we been besy & doon our deuer to fulfille the wil of god & his pleasaunce thanne loue we hym wit al our my3te.Hugh also says 'Night shall be my light to my delights' (Psalm 138.11/139.11-12, Hugh, p. 71, repeating this several times), with which Julian concludes her Long Text (PXVI.lxxxv.171v):
Thusand which will also be used by St John of the Cross in his 'Dark Night of the Soul'.
I saw and vnderstode that oure feyth
is oure lyght in oure nyght . Whych
lyght is god oure endlesse day .
Hugh notes he will discourse upon the Lord's Prayer (discussed also in the Norwich Castle Manuscript), while adding that the Unitive Path is based on the Advent Antiphon, 'O Wisdom which proceeds from the mouth of the Most High' (pp. 72, 106), with which Julian commences her Westminster Cathedral Manuscript text, contemplating upon the Virgin singing this Advent Antiphon to her as yet unborn Child who is Wisdom (W72v, P8v, A99v.7).
URE gracious & goodeHugh uses Pseudo-Dionysius' image of God in a Point, which Julian also employs (W82,82v, PIII.xi.23v, A101v),
lorde god shewed me in
party the wisdom & the trewthe
of the soule of our blessed lady
saynt mary . where in I vnder
stood the reuerent beholdyng
that she behelde her god that is
her maker . maruelyng with
grete reuerence that he wolde
be borne of her that was a
simple creature of his makyng .
for this was her meruelyng .
that he that was her maker wolde
be borne of her . that is made . And
this wysdom & trowth know=
ynge the gretnes of her ma=
ker . and the lytyllnes of her
AndThen Hugh concludes his Preface with 'Taste and see' (Psalm 33.9; Hugh, p. 73), all of which Julian also uses (W96v, P80v):
after this I sawe god in a poynt .
that is to sey in myne vnderston=
dynge . by whych sight I sawe
that he is all thyng. (W82)
And than shall we all come inBoth Hugh and Julian use Psalm 138.8/139.8, on the inability to hide from God: 'If I ascend into the heavens, you are there; if I descend into hell, you are present' (Hugh, pp. 75-76), in Julian, this becoming the passage on the deep sea bed wracked with seaweed, taken from Jonah's quoting that same Psalm 138.9 even in the depths of the sea (PI.x.20-20v).
to oure lord god our selfe clerely
knowyng . and god fulsomly
hauyng . and we endelesly be
had all in god . hym vereyly
seyng & fulsomly felyng . & hym
goostly felyng & hym goostly
herynge & delytably smellyng
and swetely swalowyng . and
thus shall we se god face to
face . homly and fulsomly . The
creature that is made shall se
and endelesly behold god that
is the maker . (W96v)
Both discuss the need to contemplate the Crucifixion, Christ's body splattered everywhere with his blood, the wound in his side 'so that by love's probing, the human soul might reach the wound in Christ's side and be rewarded in touching the hidden divinity that lies deep within'. Julian's Long Text centres on the bleeding Christ of the Crucifixion; all versions of her Showing speak of the wound in Christ's side (W86v-87, PIX.xxiii.46-46v, A105v.10),
Also with glad cheere . ourIn asking for the forgiving of sins Hugh says, 'May the Creator redeem all those he has created, coming to their aid mercifully, regardless of what they deserve. It cannot be doubted that the human spirit calls forth and obtains divine mercy more speedily when she seeks out the traces of the Creator of all mankind and the Redeemer of all mortals as he generously showers his charity on all' (Hugh, p. 79).
lord loked into his syde & behelde .
enjoyenge . and with his swete lo=
kynge he ledde furthe the vnder=
stondyng of his creaturys by the
same wounde into his syde with
yn . and there he shewed a feyre
delectable place & large I now
for all man kynde that shall be
sauf to reste in pees & loue. (W86v-87)
Finally, Hugh, for the Purgative Way, recommends the Virgin's intercession.
Since the Blessed Virgin excels all other saints in these qualities, the human spirit ought to run to her, saying, 'You are most merciful, more humble than anyone else, and most powerful toward those who turn to you. For you set right the ruin of the angels, through you the gate of life is opened to saints, and thus you who proclaimed yourself a pauper are acclaimed by all alongside the dealy beloved Eternal King, whom you suckled at your holy breasts, thereby joining him to you with the inexpressible bond of love' (p. 80).This echoes Julian's invocation to the Virgin as Holy Wisdom (W72v, P8v, A99v.7), and to Christ as Mother (W103v-111v, PXIV.lvii.123v-XIV.lxiii.135),
butJulian noting that Christ as mother suckles us with his blood from the wound in his side (W105v).
he wyll than . that we vse the con=
dicion of a chylde . for when it
is diseasid or a dred . than yt
renneth hastily to the moder .
and yf may do no more . it cry=
eth on the moder for helpe with
all the mythtis . (W109v)
The Illuminative Way Hugh attains through the petitions of the Lord's Prayer, not present in Julian's Showing of Love but similarly discussed in what is possibly her writing in the Norwich Castle Manuscript. In this section Hugh repeats the 'Night shall be my light in my pleasures' of Psalm 138.11 (p. 83), with which Julian will end the Long Text Showing of Love. And he also writes again on Christ as dwelling in the soul as on the throne in Jerusalem's Kingdom, for 'Thy kingdom come' noting that 'The kingdom of God is established on its lasting throne in the soul' (pp. 85, 90). Julian uses this image constantly in her texts (W101v, PXIV.liv.113v, XVI.lxviii.143v-146v, A102v-103, A112,112v), as we have already noted. It is even repeated in her conversation of spiritual direction that Margery Kemp of Lynn reports in her Book (M21).7
ffor truly oure lovyr desyerethand 'God himself is charity and he who abides in charity, abides in God and God in him' (1 John 4.16; Hugh, p. 116) is echoed often in Julian's text,
that the soule cleue to him with all
the myghtes. and that we be ever
more cleuyng to hys goodnes (P12v)
oure kyndely wille is to have god .
and the good wylle of god is to haue
vs . (P13)
for Jhesu is in all that shal be safeHugh speaks of the farmer labouring in the earth to receive the gain of a harvest (p. 120), the related theme of 'buried treasure' (p. 126), and of the soul as a beggar in relation to her Creator (p. 121), the first two of which are echoed in Julian's Parable of the Servant (PXIV.li.93-XIV.liv.113v), the third re-appearing in the prayer in the Lambeth Manuscript (L60v):8
And all that be savyd is in Jhesus
And all of the charyte of god . (P103v)
Good Lord I apeerHugh returns to his beginning in saying 'Her hunger will never be satisfied until she has been led to him whose image she imitates, until through the touch of love she comes to him for whom alone her very nature hungers, until he signals his presence in her by steady joy' (p. 124). He also now elucidates prayer, (as the prophet David says: 'Night shall be my light in my pleasures'), returning the theme beloved also by Julian, by John of the Cross (p. 134). He repeats the image of the side wound:
here afore the as
a poore wrechyd beg=
ger. Afore on of grett
ryches and superabu=
dant tresure. besechyng
the to make me pertey=
ner of the most pre=
cyous tresure and ryches
of thy marcy & grace.
Cogitation on the flesh is a gateway to enter into the divinity of love that is hidden inside. To symbolize this, he was willing to have his most sacred side opened up by the iron lance so that the woulds he suffered might become the indispensable means for the human spirit to be rooted n the depths of divinity (p. 136).Hugh will end the discussion of the Unitive Way by passages that recall not so much Julian as Marguerite Porete's Mirror of Simple Souls' editorializing comment, the Cloud Author's similar comment and the editorial colophon to Julian's Sloane Manuscript (S110.20-37):
According to the words of Denis in his letter Timothy, 'The divine cloud is that unapproachable light in which God is said to dwell invisibly, on account of the surpassing brilliance' . . . . After this, Denis says, 'See to it, moreover, that no uninstructed person hears these things'. Indeed he gives the same admonition at the end of the first chapter of On the Divine Names, where he speaks of knowledge through previous love: 'We ordain that holy things be kept for the holy, in accord with divine tradition, and they they be kept from being used or derided by the uninstructed; better yet, if people are that bad, let us set them free from their hostility toward God'- He very frequently gives the same warning in his other works and he immediately explains why: for such people think they can know the one who places darkness around his hiding place (Ps 17.12), the sort of thing they know as knowledge, when God can only be apprehended by means of the Good, the True, the Kind, and similar terms (pp. 153-154).He adds:
Therefore, with blessed Denis and, much more, with the Lord Jesus Chrsit, I ask anyone whose eye might fall on this treatise never to show a bit of it to untaught doctors and philosophers of this world who live the fleshly life. Show it only to such of them as wish to begin to take up the childish path of purgation. For hard-working artisans ascending step-by-step within themselves solely by divine influx will quickly test all that has been said much better and with far more joyful experiential knowledge than those who work the liberal arts (p. 154).He ends the work by presenting these mysteries, contradictorily, in scholastic terms: 'A Difficult Question: Whether the Soul in her Affectus can, by Aspiration and Yearning, be Moved into God without any of the Intellect's Cogitation Leading the Way or Keeping her Company'. Here, reverting to the image concerning the engineering of the medieval bridge in first wood, then stone (p. 166), he explains that the soul, through love's yearning unto God, into the one she loves (as Denis says in On the Divine Names), is 'Godded' or 'deified' (p. 156). He adds that in this Trinity, God the Father is Power, God the Son, Wisdom, God the Holy Spirit, Love (p. 156); which is also Dante's (Inferno III ) and Julian's triad (W83, PIV.xi.25, XIV.lviii.124v, XIV.lxi.132, XIV.lxii.133v, XVI.lxxiv.154, 154v, XVI.lxxvii.161, A100.114), though rare elsewhere amongst the Church Fathers.
¶ ffor the furst I sawIn this final section, despite its change of style, he will echo the earlier themes: 'Taste and see' (p. 160), God as Power, Wisdom, Love (p. 160), and he will discuss the 'touching' by God of the soul' (p. 165), all of which he draws, for his argument, from Denis the Areopagite ('epafh'), considered in the Middle Ages not as Pseudo-Dionysius, but as Paul's convert on the Areopagus of Athens (Acts 17.34), and thus an Apostolic Father. He will cite Richard of St Victor, the Victorines having studied and cherished the works of Pseudo-Dionysius. All these themes are also in Julian, in particular that of the 'touching' by the Holy Spirit being overwhelmingly important (W75v, 76, 96, PVIII.xx.40v, A106v).
and vnderstode that the hygh myght
of the trinyte is oure fader . And
the depe wysdom of the trynyte is
oure moder . And the grete loue of
the trynyte is oure lorde. (P124v)
for this is the kynde yernyng ofI regret that when I edited Julian I did not have at hand a copy of Hugh of Balma, though for that project I had attempted to assemble Julian's probable contemplative library. For, in conclusion, it can be seen that the influence of Hugh of Balma's Viae Sion lugent upon Julian of Norwich's Showing of Love is clearly evident. They share a common source in Pseudo-Dionysius; but they share more in common with each other than with him. Likewise, they share common sources in the Psalms and Antiphons, again the specific sharing of these particular passages demonstrating Julian's knowledge and use of Hugh's contemplative treatise, the one text in Latin, the other in Middle English, both reflecting original texts in Greek and Hebrew. They deserve being studied side by side and annotated against each other.
the soule by the touching of the
holy gooste . (W75v)
Mount Grace Priory Charterhouse
1 Carthusians live in Charterhouses, a cluster of hermitages around a cloister. In earlier times, they produced magnificent spiritual writings of use to others as well as themselves, though from the Renaissance their formation seems to stifle their calling to be the 'apostolate of the scribe'. The English Charterhouses, in London, in Coventry and at Mount Grace, propagated such texts, often translating those from the Continent into English, such as Marguerite Porete's Mirror for Simple Souls.
The influences upon Julian come from Benedictine, Brigittine, Carthusian, Carmelite, Augustinian and Dominican sources, the monastic orders producing and preserving works within their own ethos but also readily sharing and copying texts across boundaries with each other. In particular the contemplative treatises of the Benedictine hermit John Whiterig and the Augustinian Hermit William Flete, both known to Adam Easton, appear to have similarly influenced her.
2 Julian of Norwich, Showing of Love, ed. Sister Anna Maria Reynolds, C.P. and Julia Bolton Holloway (Florence: SISMEL: Edizioni del Galluzzo, 2001). W=Westminster Cathedral Manuscript, P=Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, anglais 40 Manuscript, A=British Library, Additional 37.790, Amherst Manuscript, references being to Siglum, Showing, chapter, folio, e.g. PVIII.xviii.37.
3 For Adam Easton, see Leslie John MacFarlane, 'The Life and Writings of Adam Easton, O.S.B.', University of London, Doctoral Thesis, 1955, 2 vols; Eric College, A Syon Centenary (Syon Abbey, 1961), pp. 5-6; James Hogg, 'Cardinal Easton's Letter to the Abbess and Community of Vadstena, Studies in St Birgitta, ed. Hogg, II. 21; 'Adam Easton's Defensorium Sanctae Birgittae', The Medieval Mystical Tradition, Volume 6, ed. Marion Glasscoe (Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1999), p. 234; Eric Colledge, 'Epistola solitarii ad reges: Alphonse of Pecha as Organizer of Birgittine and Urbanist Propaganda', Mediaeval Studies 18 (1975), 19-49; De S. Birgitta vidua, Acta Sanctorum [ASS] (Paris: Victor Palme, 1867), October 8, Oct IV, vol. 50, 369A, 412A, 468A, 473C.
This manuscript, Cambridge University Library Ii.III.32, fol. 108v, Norwich Cathedral Priory shelfmark X.ccxxviii, is highest surviving manuscript number of the six barrels of books Easton willed to his monastery, telling us that Adam Easton owned at least 228 manuscripts. Another of Easton's manuscripts, Origen, Homelia in Leviticum, Cambridge University Library, Ii.I.21, Norwich Cathedral Priory shelfmark X.cxx, includes, 'Aut tibi videtur Paulus cum ingressus est theatrum, vel cum ingressus est Areopagum, et praedicavit Atheniensibus Christum, in sanctis fuisse? Sed et dum perambulasset aras et idola Atheniensium ubi invenit scriptum ''Ignoto Deo'''. Origen's writings for nuns are particularly sensitive to women in the Bible, discussing for instance the woman touching Christ's fringed garment. Both the Cloud Author and Julian use that episode.
The Cloud Author, whom I consider to be Adam Easton writing to Julian, takes this particular passage and translates 'Trinitas' as 'Wisdom', Deonise Hid Diuinite and other Treatises on Contemplative Prayer Related to The Cloud of Unknowing, ed. Phyllis Hodgson (Oxford, Early English Text Society, 1958), E.E.T.S. 231, p. 2.
4 The Roads to Zion, in Carthusian Spirituality: The Writings of Hugh of Balma and Guigo de Ponte, ed. and trans. Dennis D. Martin (New York: Paulist Press, 1997), p. 69; Latin text, Hugues de Balma, Théologie mystique , ed. Francis Ruello, introduction and critical apparatus, Jeanne Barbet (Paris: Éditions du Cerf, 1995, 1996), Sources Chrétiennes 408, 2 vols.
5 The Texts and Concordances of the Works of Caterina da Siena: Il Dialogo, Le Orazioni, L'Epistolario, ed. Suzanne Noffke, O.P. (Madison: University of Wisconsin, Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, 1987); trans. as The Orcherd of Syon, ed. Phyllis Hodgson and Gabriel Liegey (London: Oxford University Press, 1966), Early English Text Society 258:
The firste chapitil of the secund partye maketh mencyoun of a brigge, how God made a brigge of his sone whanne the wey of goynge to heuene was broke by inobedience of Adam, by the which brigge alle trewe cristen men mowen ouerpasse.6 Norwich Castle Manuscript 158.926/4g.5. Likewise John Whiterig [Latin text from 'The Meditations of the Monk of Farne', ed. David Hugh Farmer, O.S.B., Studia Anselmiana 41 (1957), 141-245; English translation from Christ Crucified and Other Meditations, ed. David Hugh Farmer, trans. Dame Frideswide Sandemen, O.S.B. (Leominster: Gracewing, 1994), now titled Contemplating the Crucifixion],quotes 'Anima iusti sedes est sapiencie': Proverbs 10.25b; cited, Gregory, Hom. XXXVIII in Evang. PL 76, 1282.
7 British Library, Additional 61,823, fol. 21.
8 Lambeth Palace Library,
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