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JULIAN OF NORWICH

AND LECTIO DIVINA

 
How will you know the sound of that great bell
Too large for you to stir? Let but a flute
Play 'neath the fine-mixed metal: listen close
Till the right note flows forth, a silvery rill;
Then shall the huge bell tremble - then the mass
With myriad waves concurrent shall respond.
                                                                      George Eliot, Middlemarch XXXI
 
 


Bodleian Library, Oxford University

eceiving a communication from another Julian scholar, whose work I have much admired (whom I shall call here the 'Clerke of Oxenforde', for that is where I first met him), I find myself obliged to respond. He states that he does not accept, nor do others, my research on Julian. He protests its 'devotionalism'. He claims I should only cite and agree with the secondary research that has been published in the later twentieth and beginning twenty-first centuries, rather than looking at the manuscripts that circled about her: those generated before her which influenced her, those contemporaneous with her, and those following hers, responding to her texts, manuscripts from before the fourteenth-fifteenth centuries, those from that time-span and those that came after written by Brigittine and Benedictine nun scribes who went into exile with access to her original manuscripts and who saved them for us. It had long been the purpose of my Julian Library Project to study the books influencing her and generated by her, to recreate her lost library. In Norwich Father Robert and Sister Pamela at All Hallows' Julian Shrine sat me down with Vincent Gillespie's and Maggie Ross' fine paper in Mystics' Quarterly on Julian and lectio divina as my consolation.

Scholarship itself goes through fads and phases. When we began graduate school at Berkeley we were required to study at least three languages, one of them either Latin or Greek. Then that requirement was dropped. But I found I needed to learn ever more languages to access international scholarship and to read primary texts. For one finds, in manuscript work, the need to combine modern and ancient languages, modern and ancient skills. It is easier, for instance, with Italian or even rudimentary Swedish to access manuscripts in Latin in the Vatican and the Laurentian and Uppsala and Lund and Stockholm libraries concerning Birgitta of Sweden, Magister Mathias, Bishop Hemming, Bishop Hermit Alfonso of Jaén and the Norwich Benedictine, Cardinal Adam Easton, or schoolgirl French to find Julian and other manuscripts copied out by English nuns in exile in France at the Reformation, then seized at the Revolution and left in secular Parisian and municipal libraries. When we began graduate school we were also required to study and practice textual editing, which entailed paleography, bibliography, etc., and which encouraged working with the original texts the most that was possible to do. This field used to be called 'Textual Criticism'. It was scholarly and scientific. Part of our training was to critique the preceding editions. We knew, in turn, that our editions would be so examined and perhaps found wanting by future generations of scholars. We could also learn these skills for one period and they could transfer to another. As in the sciences it was essential that research could be duplicated, though not plagiarised, and careful documentation as to manuscripts consulted and other primary materials to be given in footnotes and bibliographies so that further generations of scholars could consult these. What was crucial was establishing the text as close to that of the author's as possible through manuscripts or first editions. Already, my father, who as a boy worked in the Bodleian Library, taught me how to read out of Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire with s's like f's, and instructed me in the structure of a book, its signatures, showing me manuscripts and first and early editions, and I witnessed his writing book after book, then preparing them for printing.

I had wanted as a schoolgirl to read history at Oxford. Instead, I was sent into American exile, where at least literature began with Chaucer, though history only as early as the Mayflower, so instead I majored in English, minored in French when an undergraduate. I was blessed in graduate school at Berkeley, when I shifted from seventeenth-century studies to medieval studies, in being encouraged by my advisor Charles W. Jones to study first under Etienne Gilson, Thomas Aquinas' theology, then under Sir Richard Southern, twelfth-century history, especially its women like Heloise and Christina of Markyate and its Jews, its outsiders who survived. While writing the dissertation I taught for the Franciscans at Quincy University, whose library contained vellum-bound incunabula brought to the New World when Bismarck shut down the German friaries. Next, I taught for seven years at Princeton, for I had already been infected by D.W. Robertson, Jr and John V. Fleming's books in graduate school at Berkeley to the alarm of my colleagues, using iconography and exegesis, and had followed their suit with the visual evidence from Dante, Chaucer and Langland manuscripts' miniatures alongside their texts concerning the figura, reality and satire of medieval pilgrimage, concerning how medieval texts had themselves been read. At Princeton I was able to work further with manuscripts and illuminations and had the full run of the Index of Christian Art. The Berkeley dissertation, rewritten at Princeton, which was really the nostalgic memory of growing up along the Canterbury pilgrim road in Sussex, went into three editions as a published book and its Dante sections will now also see the light of day in Italian.

The Berkeley Troubles infected the Latin Quarter in Paris, now as in the Middle Ages ever ready to seize upon heresy and turn it into orthodoxy, Aristotle was co-opted by Aquinas, Marx by Sartre, and in the twentieth century, following WWII, Theory conquered Academia world-wide, annihilating texts and the philology with which one had studied them, shutting down openness. It is true that some forms of philology engendered nationalism and its annihilating wars, as Julien Benda showed in La trahison des clercs, the Germans with Wagner, the French with the Roman de Roland (whose earliest manuscript is Anglo-Norman, from Oxford, not French). But the 'Golden Apples' who fled Hitler, coming to American shores, Janson, Hecksher, Auerbach, Curtius, Kantorowicz, Ladner, deeply appreciated and taught the universal Latin Christian basis of European civilization. They were the true philologists, switching cultures and languages and codes, but not annihilating them, instead seeking to preserve them in the face of utter destruction. Brian Stock followed in their footsteps with his concept of 'textual communities'. Meanwhile in England and America 'New Criticism' came into being, with a close examination of the text, though it did not much matter which version of the author's text or what translation was being studied, nor was its contextuality considered of importance. Last, 'Theory' took over, annihilating even the last bastion, the 'text'. Umberto Eco's Name of the Rose apocalypses monastic 'texual communities'. But in the Vatican the works of Jean Leclercq became influential, restoring monastic lectio divina rather than academic scholasticism as valid for theology, and in this validating also theology written by women in this contemplative mode. Pope John Paul II particularly used the theology of Birgitta of Sweden, Pope Benedict XVI citing that of Julian of Norwich. In a Dominican academic context Julian's 'Jesus as Mother' has been studied as a form of medieval midrash, similar to that of lectio divina, deeply rooted in Judaism. While several Anglicans, recently, proclaimed Julian a heretic because a woman bishop cited this concept in a sermon.

In a sense my scholarly methodology concerning the editing of texts, whether Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Aurora Leigh and Other Poems for Penguin, or Brunetto Latino's Il Tesoretto for Garland and the Laurentian Library, or Birgitta of Sweden's Revelations for Boydell and Brewer and the Web, or Julian of Norwich's Showing of Love for SISMEL, has been to plunge into the primary materials surrounding these figures and/or generated by them and then, with humility, to listen to what they were saying, an approach based on the profound study of 'texts and contexts', the sub-title I gave to this Julian Website and Julian Library Project, where I seek for every clue and scrap of evidence about them that can elucidate them. Their 'smoking pistols', as if in a Dorothy Sayers detective mode. To edit Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Aurora Leigh requires whole libraries of books, the Bible in Hebrew, the Classics in Greek and Latin, Dante, Langland, Madame de Staël, George Sand, indeed a library matching her own at Malvern and in Florence, to examine her intertextuality. We see illuminations of medieval writers similarly with lecterns on which are books while they create such books anew (especially in the Laurentian illuminated manuscript of the Tesoretto). And in these illuminations women are present, as well as men, such women as Hildegard of Bingen (bottom left corner),

Birgitta of Sweden,

and Christine de Pizan.

I have cheated here. This is an illumination in a Christine de Pizan manuscript, not of herself but of Minerva, Wisdom, teaching men.

Christine, as a child, had the run of the King of France's library, just as had Elizabeth Barrett Browning the run of the library assembled with slave wealth by her father for her brother. Libraries and books are a technology permitting human voices, both treble and base, a civilizing conversation across millennia. I am amused by a conference poster showing Ezra in the Codex Amiatinus composing his edition of the Torah with a laptop. Nor should we forget that Huldah the prophetess preceded Ezra by more than a century in advocating such Torah study, she being his model. Just as much as the practical studies of Mary Somerville and Ada Lovelace conveyed to Charles Babbage in the nineteenth century the know-how for constructing the computer - using Jacquard loom cards with holes punched in them. Indeed, the Norwich Benedictine, Cardinal Adam Easton (as before him had the Cardinal Jerome), specifically cites Huldah as validating women's prophecies, in particular, as validating Birgitta of Sweden's prophetic Revelationes. I found useful the compiling of time lines, first for Elizabeth Barrett Browning in the Penguin Classics edition (for which I also studied Hebrew and Greek), then for the development of the technology of writing and books from the papers given by international scholars at our City and Book conferences I organized in Florence, and finally for Julian of Norwich, demonstrating the pan-European and Brigittine contexts, which clearly involved Norwich and Lynn where Julian wrote her Showing and Margery dictated her Book. In these timelines not only text but context can be studied, not only literature but history. And they are scientific, based in reality, time only going forward, not backward, in a phylogenesis of people and of their books. Another facet worthy of study is their geography as well as their history, mapping them in both time and space. In Medieval Studies we are allowed to be interdisciplinary.

In order to be as faithful as possible to the authors I edit I have had to exclude much of the contamination generated by later and more shallow research. When one checks the veracity of watermarks, for instance against the repeatedly published statements, etc., it is to find these parroting statements are fallacious. Of the surviving Julian manuscripts in order: Amherst is fifteenth-century, from 1413-circa 1435; Westminster is Tudor, with an earlier date written on it as if to say its exemplar is '1368', both being parchment manuscripts without watermarks; while of the later paper manuscripts Paris is Elizabethan, written out near Antwerp in exile by Brigittine nuns copying a Tudor manuscript; Sloane 1 is later than Sloane 2, Sloane 1 copying a fourteenth-century exemplar; and both, written out at Cambrai by exiled Benedictine nuns, precede Serenus Cressy's 1670 editio princeps, all this information being established through paleography and through the studies of the watermarks of the paper manuscripts, as is the case with Paris and the Sloanes. I found Westminster to truly reflect its '1368' date, when she would have been 25, prior to the 1373 vision which it does not include, though it was copied out later as 'fair copy' for a Tudor printing, Paris and Sloane to be the 'great book' written centred upon that 1373 vision, with from fifteen to twenty years of reflection, and finished when she was fifty, and Amherst to be dictated likely to a Carmelite scribe when she was seventy, under censorship by Archbishop Chancellor Arundel (who forbade lectio divina in the living language of English, only licensing it in the dead language of Latin), much as had Mechtild von Magdebourg, old and blind, dictated her last Book of the Flowing Light of the Godhead to the nuns at Helfta, and, as Jill Mann has shown, as had Langland written the A text last, responding to the censhorship, and not first. But I am being told I must say that Amherst is written shortly after 1373, that Paris is written as a skilful late Chattertonesque forgery pretending to be archaic (even to the extent of carefully using antique paper!), and that Sloane 2 follows Sloane 1, as this is received scholarly opinion, presented by Colledge and Walsh, Beer, Glasscoe, Kempster and Watson in their editions, Barratt in her article and Baker in her book, who have not checked the manuscripts with paleographers and bibliographers. What has gone wrong is the modern lack of expertise and rigor (which is not rigor mortis!) in historical, bibliographical and textual criticism of the old-fashioned tried and true scientific mode. Similarly, modern art has forgotten the study of anatomy, of perspective, of media, of pigment, of the secrets of the Old Masters, and so produces ephemeral trendy trash, designed, as Stanley Fish observed, to self 'deconstruct'. We have thrown out 'tradition' as the handing down of treasures from the past in our present for the future, and instead 'consume' our resources, to turn them into deconstructing power and ephemeral money.

There is a risk among 'textual critics', the editors of texts, that they become as dry-as-dust as was George Eliot's monstrous Casaubon, whose marriage to Dorothea was a disaster because his scholarship was cast in the celibate mode of those who sacrificed all for their vocation, taking the Vows of Poverty, Chastity and Obedience. Arthur Hugh Clough, translator of Plutarch's Lives, resigned his Oriel Fellowship, which required celibacy, to marry, but similarly was distraught during that marriage, dying young, his poems still unpublished. Heloise long ago falsely told Abelard what he wanted to hear, that cradles and writing desks, pens and spindles, do not mix. Partly, this is because the world of scholarship requires the eliminating and focussing of stimuli. But the world of scholarship also profits from as deep an immersion as is possible in the contexts of the texts, to restore them in editing them to their fullest potential. We can choose either the 'uncontaminated' 'Ivory Tower' of the academic mode, with careful analysis, dialectic, dissection, of dead material, or we can choose that older and more lively, more scintillating, method of composing books about the Book, its lectio divina. I used to travel with my three children to Europe and together we climbed cathedral spires, counting their steps, and once, in a fresco in Santa Maria Novella's Spanish Chapel, seeing a figure clad in red amongst those of the damned on God's left hand objecting to Aquinas' preaching by tearing up the Bible, I suddenly saw in that act Chaucer's Wife of Bath similarly ripping up her Clerk of Oxenforde's book that mirrors God's Book. That deconstruction of the book made its way into The Pilgrim and the Book: A Study of Dante, Langland and Chaucer. In which book I had argued that medievalists should use as 'critical theory' that medieval theology which itself had created these books and which discoursed upon books as mirroring the Book. Now the trend is for Gender Studies gone Gay and Lesbian, 'Queering the Middle Ages'. Both Birgitta and Julian, if the Norwich Castle Manuscript is written by her, spoke openly and clearly for chastity, the sublimation of one's sexuality on God, ourselves as the 'Bride of Christ'. (Interestingly, more than one book manuscript I wrote met the same fate as shown in the Santa Maria Novella fresco and in the poems of the Commedia, Piers Plowman and the Canterbury Tales, and as happened to the books written by Marguerite Porete and Elizabeth Barton, these books being literally so destroyed by 'Clerkes of Oxenford'! My Clerk of Oxenford, I was informed by PIMS, destroyed my manuscript he had been sent to review.)

There is a further, deeper layer to this study of texts and contexts. It was formerly known as 'Source Studies', John Livingston Lowes speaking of Lucretius' 'hooked atoms', where a poet's read books resonated with his poetry, Robert O. Payne of Chaucer's 'Key of Remembrance'. Then the French medievalists especially came to speak of 'Intertextuality', this game and play with sources and echoes, already studied by Curtius and Auerbach with Dante's use of the Classics that were available in medieval libraries. Let me take an example. I failed, when editing Julian, at the time to look at Hugh of Balma's influence on her text. That came later, and I found not only the verbal scriptural echoes but also that these verbal scriptural echoes came in the right sequence, her text not plagiarising his, but digesting it, assuming it, in order. Similarly with John Whitrig. Contemplatives use prior texts as do painters use prior paintings, and as do film directors use previous classic films, for inspiration, for harmonizing with them, for playing off them. To 'perform' contextual, intertextual studies requires deep immersion, in whole libraries, archives, museums and archeological remains, such as the ruins of Carrow Priory, from which one glimpses Norwich's Castle and its Cathedral, just as would have Julian, or with the recent excavations of Syon House discovering the vast foundations of Syon Abbey. Then the results can become like George Eliot's flute-playing beside Florence's great Duomo bell; then one can find a true note, through humility, from its resonance. Such as when I first discovered Adam Easton, Norwich Benedictine, amongst Latin texts in the Vatican Library when working on Birgitta of Sweden, and then found more and more material showing his propinquity to our Julian and their sharing of books and the Book, discovering even the scholar who was working on the bills for the shipping of his books from Oxford to Norwich, from the Lowlands to Norwich, from Rome to Norwich, across the table from myself in Cambridge while I was reading Easton's magnificent thirteenth-century Victorine manuscript of Pseudo-Dionysius. I had already realized when editing Birgitta that I needed to re-enter the world of women's convents, such as the one in which I had been brilliantly educated by nuns who had Hebrew and Greek, in order to understand Julian and this became the Vocation. But really this method has always been with us and it is our monastic lectio divina.

I found this was true at a far more profound level in the convent cell than in the university office. In a convent a whole layer of one's brain becomes seeped sensuously in the music of the liturgy, so much so that one does not speak words but one sings them in one's mind in the act of reading. I had already guessed this had been so with Piers Plowman in its own time from my work of producing liturgical dramas sung in Latin Gregorian chant by my Princeton University students after five rehearsals. But now I myself would wake with the Advent Great 'O' Antiphons ringing through my mind. As they would have in Julian's and, formerly, her readers' minds in a textual, musical community that bridged centuries. Liturgical literature, even to its use of enveloping chiasmus with its antiphons, is both right and left brain activity, bicameral, wholistic. In this way I came to see that Julian's thinking 'in Bible' is from lectio divina. This is best seen in Jean Leclerq, The Love of Learning and the Desire for God. And that Julian combined the reading of that Book from Hebrew as well as from Latin, translating both Hebrew and Latin (behind which lay the Greek) into her Middle English, long before the King's James Bible. Thus I came to understand many of the references below through their appearances in the lectionary day by day, living within the 'glass bead game' of the Book, playing upon it during the liturgical seasons. Because of this, in Florence I organized a series of international conferences on The City and the Book, taking as the basis for Western Civilization, Alphabet and Bible, as had already Curtius and Auerbach in their magisterial studies. Other Julian scholars, like Christopher Abbott and Frederick Christian Bauerschmidt, share in this perception, the first speaking of Julian's monastic context, the second of her eucharistic one. It is a mode of scholarship celebrating the senses, not, as in the Academy's Scholastic Theory, divorced from them. But here the uses of the senses are all 'oned' in God. In this way we can study Julian studying God with body, mind and soul in harmony. Job 12.11 asked: 'Does not the ear test words as the palate tastes food?' As Julian herself tells us:

For I saw and felt that his marvelous and fulsome goodness fulfills all /W/ other /SP/ our /WSP/ mights. And then I saw that his continual working in all manner thing is done so godly, so wisely, and so mightily, that it /W/ pleases /SP/ overpasses /WSP/ all our imagining, and all that we can understand and think. And then we can do no more but behold him, enjoying with a high mighty desire to be all oned into him and /S/ entered to his dwelling /WP/ attend to his /W/ wooing /P/ motion /WSP/ and enjoy in his loving, and delight in his goodness. And then shall we with his sweet grace, in our own meek continuing prayers, come into him now in this life by many privy touchings of sweet ghostly sights and feeling measured to us as our simpleness may bear it. And this /WP/ is /WSP/ wrought, and shall be, by the grace of the holy Ghost so long till we shall die in longing for love. And then shall we all come into our Lord, ourself clearly knowing and God fulsomely having. And we endlessly be all /WS/ had /P/ hid /WSP/ in God, him truly seeing, and fulsomely feeling, him ghostly /W/ feeling and him ghostly /WSP/ hearing, and him delectably smelling, and him sweetly swallowing, and then shall we see God face to face homely and fulsomely. The creature who is made shall see and endlessly behold God who is the Maker.
Etienne Gilson reminded us that in Thomas Aquinas' Summa Theologiae Adam and Eve's orgasm was greater than what could ever be experienced after the Fall. George Williams has written on the monastery and the university with their cloisters as figuring Paradise. For the monastic Vows do not divorce the monk, the nun, from the body or the mind for the soul only, but balance each: in work and study and prayer. The monastery, the anchorhold, the locus of such Vows, more than the university, creates the ideal space in which to create books from the Book, the 'Room of One's Own' of Michel de Montaigne and Virginia Woolf as the 'Cell of Self-Knowledge and of God' of the medieval contemplatives. And these Vows balance each facet of our being in God. As Benedict bids us.


St Birgitta in her cell writing her Revelationes

We see this vision of God also in Dante, in all the Friends of God contemplatives, and in other monastic theologians before and after them, and we hear how the Book rings through their books. They are engaged in a 'Sacred Conversation' about the Book in their books - and with each other. They play flutes that resonate with 'that great bell'. It is not the strident analytical sound of the University debate, of Scholasticism, of the Clerks of Paris and Oxenforde, puffed up with envy and ambition, using left-brain analysis, those figures the Cloud of Unknowing author observes in the corridors of power, but instead it is music, its oral style playing with anaphora, with rich memoried textual allusions, consonanting itself to the Book and to God. Aquinas himself, ultimately, rebelled against his own style, saying it was nothing but straw, that straw laid down outside the Sorbonne's lecture halls so professors could be heard by students, and he abandoned his Summa Theologiae, finding theology best crystallized in hymning poetry. And it is a sacred conversation in which women can share, as had Monica and Augustine at Ostia, as had Scholastica and Benedict at Subiaco, as had, in a fiction, Dante and Beatrice in Purgatorio and Paradiso if not in Florence, as have, in fact, Vincent Gillespie and Maggie Ross at Oxford.
 

Below I give what I placed in an Appendix to the diplomatic SISMEL edition of the manuscripts of Julian of Norwich's Showing of Love. Scriptural echoes are paralleled to the manuscripts' foliation and can be retrieved as such in that edition. Julian's use of English has been much praised, likewise her use of theology; we recall T.S. Eliot and Thomas Merton's comments, among others. In part this is because Julian (as would later the translators in the Jerusalem Chamber of Westminster Abbey working on the King James Authorized Bible), is translating directly from Hebrew into our language.These findings are subject to interactive correction by the readers of this essay. It is suggested that these tables be printed out (in small type, otherwise the columns will fail to correspond), then be compared with hard copies of the Julian of Norwich, Showing of Love, SISMEL edition and the Bible, side by side. The experience will be that of lectio divina, especially where one savours these echoing texts, contemplating upon them, entering into eternity, where Israel/Palestine, the incunable of our culture, palimpsests upon England and America.
 

LECTIO DIVINA IN JULIAN OF NORWICH'S SHOWING OF LOVE

Knowledge of Hebrew Scriptures

Westminster Manuscript:
 
W73v
W74
W75
W75v
W76
W76v
W78v
W79
W83
W83v
W84v
W89v
W91
W93v
W94
W95v
W96v
W97
W98
W99v
W100
W101v
W102v
W103
W104v
W105
W105v
W106
W106v
W107v
W109
W111
Psalms 102.26,104.1-2, Isaiah 38.12
Job 10.8, Psalm 119.73, Isaiah 40.12,15-31, Wisdom 11.23-26
Isaiah 30.15
1 Chronicles 29.10-19, Psalm 73.25, Isaiah 30.15
Genesis 2.24
Genesis 2.24, Isaiah 64.4
Job 10.8-12, Psalm 102.17, Wisdom 11.24, Isaiah 38.12
Isaiah 64.4
Exodus 3.14
Wisdom 8.1
Exodus 19.6, Psalm 103.4, Song of Solomon 3.11, Zechariah 9.16
Psalm 102.1-2, Isaiah 58.9
1 Chronicles 29.10-19
Deuteronomy 6.4-9 (Shema), Isaiah 58.9
Psalm 8.4-9, Isaiah 43.1-11
Deuteronomy 6.4, Wisdom 8.1
Exodus 33.20, Psalm 34.8 
Proverbs 8.22-30
Job 12.11, Psalm 8.4-10
Genesis 1.26,27, 2.22-24, Exodus 3.14 
1 Chronicles 29.14
Psalms 102.27, 104, Isaiah 38.12
Exodus 3.14
Exodus 3.14
Genesis 3.16, Psalms 22.10, 139.13, Isaiah 49.15
Genesis 3.16, Psalms 22.10, 139.13, Isaiah 49.15
1 Samuel 1-3
Exodus 3.14, Psalms 22.9-10, 139.13, Isaiah 49.15
Genesis 3.16, Isaiah 49.15
Exodus 3.14, 20.12, Deuteronomy 6.4-9
Isaiah 49.15-16
Psalm 119.73-80, Isaiah 49.16

Paris Manuscript
 
Contents i.2
Contents i.3
Prologue ii.3
I.vi.8
I.v.9
I.v.9v
I.v.10
I.v.10v
I.v.11
I.vi.12
I.vi.12v
II.x.20
II.x.20v
II.x.22v
III.xi.24
III.xi.24v
IV.xii.25
IV.xii.25v
V.xiii.27
VIII.xvii.33v
VIII.xvii.34v
VIII.xvii.35
VIII.xix.37v
IX.xxii.42v
X.xxiii.46
XI.xxv.49
XIII.xxvii.49v
XIII.xxviii.51
XIII.xxxi.54v
XIII.xxxi.55
XIII.xxxi.56
XII.xxvii.57-59v
XIII.xxxix.69v
XIV.xli.73
XIV.xli.74v
XIV.xlii.76v
XIV.xlii.77
XIV.xliii.78v
XIV.xliii.79v
XIV.xliii.80
XIV.xliv.80v
XIV.xliv.81
XIV.l.91v
XIV.li.93v
XIV.li.97v
XIV.li.99
XIV.li.100v
XIV.li.101
XIV.1i.105v
XIV.li.106
XIV.lii.107v
XIV.lii.108
XIV.liii.113
XIV.lix.114
XIV.lv.115
XIV.lvi.118v
XIV.lvi.119
XIV.lvii.121
XIV.lviii.123
XIV.lviii.126v
XIV.lx.128v
XIV.lx.129v
XIV.lx.130
XIV.lxi.131v
XIV.lxi.132
XIV.lxi.133
XIV.lxii.134v
XV.lxiv.136v
XVI.lxviii.143v
XVI.lxviii.144
XVI.lxix.146v
XVI.lxix.147
XVI.lxii.151v
XVI.lxxiii.152v
XVI.lxxiv.156
XVI.lxxxv.158
XVI.lxxv.158v
XVI.lxxvii.162
XVI.lxxxiii.170v
XVI.lxxxiv.171v
Psalm 8.4-10
Wisdom 8.1
Song of Solomon 4.9 (Vulgata)
Job
Job 10.8, Psalms 102.26, 104, 119.73, Isaiah 38.12, 40.12,15-31, Wisdom 11.23-26 
Wisdom 11.24
Isaiah 30.15
1 Chronicle 29.10-19, Psalm 73.25
Genesis 2.24, Isaiah 64.4
Wisdom 11.24
Genesis 2.24  Deuteronomy 6.4-9, Job 10.8-12, Psalm 102.26, Isaiah 38.12, 64.4, Wisdom 11.24
Psalm 119.105, Song of Solomon 3.1-4, Wisdom 8.2
Psalms 18.16, 139.9, Jonah 2.5
Genesis 32.30
Genesis 1.4,10,18,25,31
Wisdom 8.1
Exodus 3.14, Psalms 119.73, Wisdom 7.15-30-8.1
Genesis 1.6-10, Psalm 65.9-13
Job 1.6-12, 2.1-5, 42.10-17
Isaiah 49.16
Genesis 1.26, 2.7, 1 Samuel 16.12
Isaiah 64.4
Psalm 8.4-9
Exodus 19.6, Psalms 8.6, 103.4, Song of Solomon 3.11, Zechariah 9.16
Exodus 19.6, Psalms 8.6, 103.4, Song of Solomon 3.11, Zechariah 9.16
Exodus 3.14, 1 Kings 19.12
Isaiah 64.4
2 Kings 4.23,26
2 Kings 4.23,26
2 Kings 4,23,26
Exodus 19.6, Psalms 8.2-7, 103.4, Song of Solomon 3.11, Zechariah 9.16
2 Kings 4.23,26
Psalms 51, 136.1-26
Psalm 119
Isaiah 58.9
Psalm 31.8, Isaiah 58.9
Genesis 2.18-20, Deuteronomy 6.4-9, Psalm 8.6,4-9
Wisdom 7.27, 8.1
Deuteronomy 6.4-9
Deuteronomy 6.4, Leviticus 19.18, Song of Solomon 1.4, Isaiah 64.4, Wisdom 8.1
Psalm 34.8, Exodus 33.20
Proverbs 8.22-31
Isaiah 64.4
Isaiah 2.10
Exodus 28.31
Genesis 1.26, 2.7, Liturgical Psalms 95,104
Genesis 2.8-3.24, 27.4,25
Genesis 27.4,25
Exodus 28.31
Psalms 8.27, 110.1, Song of Solomon 3.11, Zechariah 9.16
Deuteronomy 6.4-9, Leviticus 19.18
Song of Solomon 1.4
Psalm 8.4-10
Genesis 1.26.27. 2.22-24. Exodus 3.14
1 Chronicles 29.14, Psalm 119.27-37
Isaiah 30.15
Job
Ezekiel 47.1-12
Deuteronomy 6.4-9. Psalm 19.5, Song of Solomon, Isaiah 61.10, 62.5, Jeremiah 7.34, 16.9, 25.10, 33.11, Hosea, Joel 2.16
Exodus 3.14, I Kings 19.12
Genesis 3.16, Psalms 22.10, 139.13, Isaiah 49.15
Genesis 3.16, Psalms 22.9-10, 139.13
Genesis 3.16, 1 Samuel 1-3, Wisdom 11.24, Isaiah 49.15
Wisdom 11.24
Isaiah 49.15
Psalm 119.73
Psalm 8
2 Kings 4.23,26
Psalm 18.19
Proverbs 10.25b
2 Kings 4.23,26
Deuteronomy 6.5
Isaiah 64.4
Exodus 3.14, 1 Kings 19.12, Isaiah 64.4
Deuteronomy 33.27, Isaiah 49.15
Job 26.11, Psalms 46.3-4
Job 26.11, Psalms 46.3-4
Genesis 2.24, Isaiah 64.4
Exodus 3.14
Psalm 119.105, 139.11, Wisdom 8.1   See also Finbar, OSB

Amherst Manuscript
 
A99
A100v
A102
A104v
A105
A106
A107
A108v
A109v
A110
A112
A115
Isaiah 40.12,15-31, Psalm 119.73, Job 10.8, Wisdom 11.23-26
Leviticus 19.18
Genesis 1.1-10, 2.6-14, Job
Isaiah 64.4
Psalms 8.5, 103.4, Song of Solomon 3.11, Isaiah 62.2-3. Zechariah 9.16
Exodus 3.14
2 Kings 4.23,26
2 Kings 4.23,26, David, Psalm 51
Isaiah 58.9
Isaiah 58.9
Psalm 18.19, Proverbs 10.25b
Leviticus 19.18, Deuteronomy 6.4-9

Use of Greek Testament

Westminster Manuscript
 
W72v
W73
W73v
W76
W76v
W78v
W79
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W81v
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W84v
W85
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W101
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W102
W103v
W104v
W105
W105v
W106v
W107v
W113
Luke 2.19, 1 Corinthians 13.12
Matthew 5.3-14. 6.10. 26.39, Luke 1.38, 46-55. 6.20-31, 22.42, Ephesians 3.17
1 Corinthians 3.16
Matthew 19.5, Mark 10.7, Romans 12.9
Matthew 19.5, Mark 10.7, Romans 12.9, 1 Corinthians 2.9
Matthew 6.19-21, Luke 12.33-34, 1 Corinthians 3.16-17, 6.15-20, Ephesians 4.7-10
Matthew 19.5, Mark 10.7, 1 Corinthians 2.9
Luke 6.38, Ephesians 4.7-8
Luke 15.32, John 16.20-24
Matthew 10.29-31, Luke 12.6-7, 1 Corinthians 15-52
Hebrews 6.1, James 1.12, 1 Peter 2.9, 5.4, Revelation 2.10
1 Corinthians 9.25, Philippians 4.1, 2 Timothy 4.8
Matthew 3.17, 12.18, 17.5, Mark 1.11, 9.7, Luke 3.22, 9.35
2 Corinthians 9.7
John 20.24-29
Matthew 12.49-50, Mark 3.31-35, Luke 8.20-21
Luke 5.34, 7.32-35, 15.22-24
1 Thessalonians 5.17
Matthew 6.8, Romans 8.26, Ephesians 3.17
Matthew 6.20-21, Luke 12.33-34, 21.1-4, Ephesians 3.17
Luke 15.22, 1 Thessalonians 5.18
Ephesians 3.17
Matthew 5.3-14, 6.10, 26-39, Luke 6.20-31, 22.42
Ephesians 3.17
Matthew 6.8, Mark 12.29-30. Luke 10.27, Romans 8.14-34, Ephesians 3.17
Matthew 6.8, Luke 17.21, John 1.6-10, 8.58, Romans 8.14-34, Ephesians 3.17, Hebrews 2.5-8, Revelation 22.5
Luke 10.27
Matthew 26.41, Mark 14.38, Luke 22.40,46
Mark 12.30, Luke 10.27, John 12.32, Romans 8.26
John 14.6, 1 John 5.6-11
Thomas' Gospel, Logia 22, Hebrews 2.5-8
1 Corinthians 15.9, Ephesians 3-8, Thomas' Gospel, Logia 22
Matthew 1.23, Luke 17.21, John 1.14
Galatians 4.19, Matthew 1.23, Luke 17.21, John 1.14
2 Corinthians 9.7
Ephesians 3.17
Ephesians 3.17
Luke 17.21, John 1.14, 1 Corinthians 3.16-17, 6.15-20, Hebrews 11.13-16, 12.28
Romans 8.39, Ephesians 3.18
Romans 8.39, Ephesians 3.18
Luke 2.7, John 1.1-5,14, 16.21, Galatians 4.19
John 16.21, Romans 8, Galatians 4.19
Hebrews 5.12-14
John 16.21, Galatians 4.19
Matthew 6.12, 12.47-50, Mark 3.31-35, 12.29-31, Luke 8.19-21, 11.4
Matthew 6.13

Paris Manuscript
 
Contents i.1
Contents i.2
Contents i.2v
Contents i.3
Prologue ii.4v
Prologue iii.5v
I.iv.8
I.iv.8v
I.v.9
I.v.9v
I.vi.11
I.vi.12v
I.vi.13
I.vii.14
I.vii.15v
I.vii.16
I.viii.18
II.x.19v
II.x.20
II.x.22v
II.x.23v
II.xi.23 bis
III.xi.24
IV.xii.25
V.xiii.26v
V.xiii.27v
V.xiii.28v
VI.xiv.29-29v
VI.xiv.30
VII.xv.31
VII.xv.31v
VII.xv.32
VIII.xvii.33v
VIII.xvii.35
VIII.xviii.37
VIII.xix.37-37v
VIII.xvii.37v
VIII.xix.38
VIII.xx.39v
VIII.xxi.41
VIII.xxi.41v
IX.xxii.42
IX.xxii.42v

IX.xxii.43
IX.xxiii.44
IX.xxiii.45v
X.xxiv.46
X.xxiv.46v
XI.xxv.47
XI.xxv.47v
XI.xxv.49
XII.xxvi.49v
XII.xxvii.50
XIII.xxvii.50v
XIII.xxviii.51
XIII.xxviii.52
XIII.xxviii.52v
XIII.xxxi.55
XIII.xxxi.56
XIII.xxxi.56v
XII.xxxiii.57
XIII.xxxii.57v-59v
XIII.xxxii.58v
XIII.xxxii.59
XIII.xxxiv.61v
XIII.xxxv.63
XIII.xxxvi.65v
XIII.xxxvii.67
XIIIxxxvii.67v
XIII.xxxviii.69
XIII.xi.71
XIII.xl.71v
XIV.xli.73
XIV.xli.73v
XIV.xli.74
XIV.xli.74v
XIV.xlii.75v
XIV.xlii.76
XIV.xlii.76v
XIV.xlii.77
XIV.xlii.77v
XIV.xlii.78
XIV.xlii.78v
XIV.xliii.79v
XIV.xliii.80
XIV.xliv.81
XIV.xliv.81v
XIV.xlvi.83v
XIV.xlviii.87
XIV.xlviii.87v
XIV.xlviii.88
XIV.xlix.89v
XIV.xlix.90
XIV.xlix.91
XIV.l.91v
XIV.l.92
XIV.li.93
XIV.li.93v
XIV.li.94
XIV.li.96
XIV.li.98
XIV.li.98v
XIV.li.99
XIV.li.99v
XIV.li.100
XIV.li.100v

XIV.li.101
XIV.li.103v
XIV.li.104
XIV.li.105
XIV.li.105v
XIV.li.106
XIV.lii.107
XIV.lii.107v
XIV.lii.108
XIV.lii.108v
XIV.lii.109v
XIV.liii.110v
XIV.liii.111
XIV.liii.112
XIV.liii.113
XIV.liii.113v
XIV.lix.114
XIV.lix.114v
XIV.lv.115
XIV.lv.116
XIV.lvi.117v
XIV.lvi.118
XIV.lvi.118v
XIV.lvi.119
XIV.lvi.119v
XIV.lvii.120
XIV.lvii.121
XIV.lvii.121v
XIV.lvii.122
XIV.lvii.122v
XIV.lvii.123
XIV.lvii.123v
XIV.lviii.124
XIV.lviii.124v
XIV.lviii.125
XIV.lviii.125v
XIV.lix. 126v
XIV.lix.127
XIV.lix.127v
XIV.lx.128
XIV.lx.128v
XIV.lx.129
XIV.lx.129v
XIV.lx.130
XIV.lxii.133v
XIV.lxii.134
XIV.lxiii.135v
XIV.lxiii.136
XV.lxiv.137
XV.lxiv.138
XV.lxv.139v
XV.lxv.140v
XVI.lxvi.142
XVI.lxviii.143v
XVI.lxviii.144v
XVI.lxviii.145
XVI.lxviii.145v-146
XVI.lxix.146v
XVI.lxix.147
XVI.lxxii.151v
XVI.lxxiii.152v
XVI.lxxiii.154
XVI.lxxxv.158
ZVI.lxxvi.158v
XVI.lxxvii.162
XVI.lxxviii.162v
XVI.lxxviii.163v
XVI.lxxix.165v
XVI.lxxx.166v
XVI.lxxx.167
XVI.lxxxi.167v
XVI.lxxxi.168
XVI.lxxxii.169
XVI.lxxxiv.171v
XVI.lxxxv.172
XVI.lxxvi.173
XVI.lxxxvi.175v

Ephesians 3.14-19
Hebrews 2.5-8
Ephesians 3.17
Matthew 6.13, Luke 11.4, Revelation 2.17
Matthew 6.10, 26.39, Mark 14.36, Luke 1.38, 22.42, John 21.17
Luke 1.38, 22.42
Matthew 6.13, Luke 11.4, 22.40
Luke 1.38
1 Corinthians 3.16
Philippians 2.5-11
Matthew 6.7-8, 19.5, Mark 10.7, Luke 1.51, Romans 12.9, 1 Corinthians 2.9
Matthew 6.19-21, 19.5-6, 22.37, Mark 10.7-9, 12.30, Luke 12.33-34, Ephesians 4.7-10, 1 Corinthians 2.9, 6.15-20
Luke 6.38, Romans 8.22-28, Ephesians 4.7-8
Luke 1.38,46-55, 22.42, Ephesians 3.17
Matthew 12.49-50, Mark 3.31-35, Luke 8.20-21
Revelation
Matthew 3.11, Mark 1.7, Luke 2.14, 3.16, John 1.27, Acts 2.46, 1 Corinthians 15.9, Ephesians 3.8
Matthew 17.27-31, Luke 22.63-65
John 1.3-5, 8.12, 9.5, 12.46
Romans 8.26
Luke 15.32, John 16.20-24, 1 Corinthians 15.52
Matthew 10.29-31, Luke 12.6-7
Romans 8.28
Hebrews 6.1
Luke 2.14, Acts 2.46
Luke 15.32
Revelation 2.17
Luke 15.32
Matthew 20.1-16
Romans 6.35-39
Matthew 8.25, 14.30
Romans 8.26-39
Matthew 26.6-16. 28-29, Mark 14.3-11, Luke 7.36-50, John 11.2, 19.28, 20.11-18
1 Corinthians 2.9
John 1.10, Acts 17.34
Acts 17.23
Matthew 5.45, Hebrews 2.5-8
Matthew 18.18
Romans 8.26
Luke 15.32
Luke 20.14, 23.39-43, Romans 8.15-17
2 Corinthians 12.2-4, Ephesians 3.17-19, Hebrews 2.5-9
Matthew 3.17, 12.18, 17.5, Mark 1.11, 9.7, Luke 3.22, 9.35, John 4.34, 1 Corinthians 9.25, Hebrews 2.5-8, 2 Timothy 4.8, 1 Peter 2.9, 5.4, James 1.12, Revelation 2.10
Revelation 21.1
2 Corinthians 12.2-4, Ephesians 3.17-19
2 Corinthians 9.7
John 20.24-29, 1 Corinthians 9.25, Hebrews 2.5-8, 2 Timothy 4.8, 1 Peter 2.9, James 1.12, Revelation 2.10
Matthew 12.49-50, Mark 3.31-35, Luke 2.19, 8.20-21
Luke 5.34,7.32-35, 15.22-24
Matthew 12.49-50, Mark 3.31-35, Luke 2.19, 8.20-21
John 8.58, Colossians 2.9-10
1 Corinthians 2.9
Matthew 23.5-12
1 Corinthians 15.52
Romans 8.28
Matthew 5.11, 23.37, Luke 6.22
Romans 8.26, Ephesians 3.17
Romans 8.28
1 Corinthians 9.25, Hebrews 2.5-8, 2 Timothy 4.8, 1 Peter 2.9, James 1.12, Revelation 2.10
John 12.32
Matthew 5.3-12, 10.29-31, Luke 1.46-55, 68-69, 12.6-7
Romans 8.28
Ephesians 3.17-19, Hebrews 4.14
Matthew 17.20, 19.26, Mark 10.27, Luke 1.5-38, 18.27
Hebrews 6.1,11, Revelation 1.8
Romans 8.26, Hebrews 6.1, Revelation 1.8
Romans 8.26
1 John 3.9
1 John 3.9
Luke 15.32
Ephesians 3.16-19
Luke 15.11-32, Romans 8.26
Ephesians 3.17, 1 Thessalonians 5.17
Matthew 21.22, 26.39,42, Mark 14.36, Luke 22.42, John 11.22, Ephesians 3.17
Ephesians 3.17, Matthew 6.8, 19.26, Mark 9.23, Luke 18.27, Romans 8.26
Matthew 6.20-21, Luke 12.33,15.32, 21.1-4
Matthew 6.7, 1 Thessalonians 5.18
Ephesians 3.17
Matthew 6.8, Romans 8.14-34, Ephesians 3.17
Mark 12.29-30, Luke 10.27, John 1.6-9, Ephesians 3.17, Hebrews 2.5-8, Revelation 22.5
Matthew 6.7, Romans 8.14-34
1 Thessalonians 5.16-23
Matthew 6.10, Luke 11.1-2, Ephesians 3.17
Matthew 26.41, Mark 14.38, Luke 10.27, 22.40,46, 26.41, Revelation 2.17
Matthew 6.8, Mark 12.29-30, Luke 6.38, 10.27, John 12.32, Romans 8.26, Acts 2.46
John 14.6, Ephesians 3.17, 1 John 5.7
Thomas' Gospel, Logia 22
Mark 12.29-30, Luke 10.27, 1 Corinthians 13.12
1 Timothy 6.10
Ephesians 3.17
Romans 8.13
Ephesians 3.17
Luke 17.21, Acts 17.28
Mark 12.29-31, Luke 10.25-37
Matthew 6.19-20, Luke 12.33, Romans 5.19, 1 Corinthians 2.9, Ephesians 3.17
Romans 5.19
Luke 12.41-48, 14.16-24, 17.7-10, Galatians 4.1-7, Philippians 2.5-11
Romans 8.26
Luke 10.29-32
Revelation
Hebrews 1
Luke 17.21, Hebrews 11.10-16, 12.22, 13.14
Hebrews 11.10-16, 12.22, 13.14
Ephesians 3.17
Matthew 13.44, 28.8-10, Luke 24.12, John 20.4
Matthew 20.27, Mark 10.44-45, Luke 1.38, 2.29, 7.1-10, 12.35-48, 14.7-24, 15.22, 17.10, 19.11-27, 20.9-19, 22.47-51, John 20.15, Galatians 4.1-8
Ephesians 3.17
Romans 8.28-30, Ephesians 5.23-30. 1 John 3.24
John 20.3-9
Luke 23.46, 1 Timothy 6.10
Romans 8.26
Luke 20.42, 1 Corinthians 9.25, Hebrews 1.13, 2.5-9, 2 Timothy 4.8, James 1.12, Revelation 2.10
1 Corinthians 1.22,45-49, 15.22
Mark 12.20-30, Luke 10.27
John 12.32
Romans 8.26
1 Corinthians 15.52
Matthew 10.29-31, Luke 12.6-7
1 John 3.9
John 3.1-15, Ephesians 3.17
Hebrews 2.5-9
Matthew 1.23, Luke 17.21, John 1.14, 1 Corinthians 15.9, Ephesians 3.8, 1 John 4.13,16
Matthew 1.23, Luke 17.21, John 1.14, 1 Corinthians 3.16-17, 6.19-20, Galatians 4.19, 6.19-20, 1 John 4.13,16
1 Corinthians 3.16-17, 6.19-20
Matthew 5.45, Luke 12.32, 14.6, Romans 8.17, 1 Corinthians 9.7, Hebrews 1-2. 1 John 3.24
Luke 17.21, John 1.14, Romans 8.28-30, Ephesians 3.17, Hebrews 11.10-16, 12.22, 13.14, Revelation 21
Ephesians 3.17
Luke 17.21, Ephesians 3.17, Hebrews 11.10-16, 12.22, 13.14
John 1.14, Ephesians 3.17
Matthew 4.1-11, 6.9-13, 26.34-36, Romans 8.39, Ephesians 3.17
Acts 17.28, Galatians 5.17, Ephesians 3.17
Ephesians 3.17
Revelation 22.1
Matthew 22.37-40, Mark 12.30, Luke 10.27, Ephesians 3.17
Matthew 22.37-40, Mark 12.30, Luke 10.27, Ephesians 3.17
John 3.1-10
Matthew 9.15, 25.1-10. Mark 2.19-20, 10.7-9, Luke 5.34-35, John 3.29, Romans 8, Revelation 18.23
1 John 3.9
Matthew 12,46-50, Mark 3.31-35, Luke 8.19-21
Acts 17.28
Ephesians 3.17
Acts 17.28
John 8.58, Ephesians 3.17
Matthew 12.49-50, Mark 3.31-35, Luke 8.20-21
Acts 17.28
Ephesians 3.18, Romans 8.39
Luke 2.7, John 1.1-5,14-16,21, Galatians 4.19
John 16.21, Galatians 4.19
John 20.27-29, Hebrews 5.12-14
John 16.21, Galatians 4.19
Romans 8.28-30
Hebrews 2.5-9
Romans 8.26-39
Ephesians 3.17
Matthew 6.13, John 3.4, Romans 8.26, Galatians 4.19
John 16.21-24, Revelation 21.4
Romans 8.28-30
1 John 4.1-6
Romans 8.28-30
John 1.14, Luke 17.21, Hebrews 11.10-16, 12.22, 13.27-28 Revelation
Luke 17.21
Revelation 22.5
Revelation 2.17
John 21.15-17
Mark 12.30, Luke 10.27
Romans 8.39, 1 Corinthians 2.9
John 8.58, 1 Corinthians 2.9
Romans 8.26-27
Matthew 27.51, 28.2
Matthew 27.51, 28.2
Matthew 19.5, 26.6-16, 28.1-10, Mark 10.7, 14.3-10, Luke 7.37-50, 8.43-48, John 11.2, 20.17-18, Romans 12.9, 1 Corinthians 2.9
Ephesians 3.17, Acts 17.28
1 Corinthians 15.9, Ephesians 3.8
Luke 15.11-32, Romans 8.28
Luke 15.3-7, 17.21
Romans 8.26
Luke 15.11-32, Romans 8.26
Luke 15.11-32
Luke 15.11-32
John 1.3-5, Revelation 22.5
1 Corinthians 13.13, Revelation 22.5, 1 John 4.8
Ephesians 3.17
1 John 4.8

Amherst Manuscript
 
A97v
A99
A100v
A101
A101v
A102
A102v
A103
A103v
A104v
A105
A105v
A106
A106v
A107
A107v
[A108v
A109v
A110
A110v
A111v
A112
A112v
A113
A113v
A114
A115
Matthew 26.39, Mark 14.36, Luke 1.38, 22-42
Matthew 6.13, Luke 1.38, 11.4
Matthew 19.19, 22.39, Mark 12.31, Luke 10.27, John 4.8-20, 1 Corinthians 13.13
1 Corinthians 14.34-35, 1 Timothy 2.12
Matthew 27.30, Luke 22.64
John 2.6
Matthew 20.1-16
Romans 8.35-39, Matthew 8.25, 14.30
John 4.19,28, John 4, Philippians 2.5, 1 Corinthians 2.16
1 Corinthians 2.9
1 Corinthians 9.25, 2 Corinthians 12.2, Ephesians 3.18-19, Hebrews 2.5-9, 2 Timothy 4.8, James 1.12, 
Revelation 2.10
John 19.34
Luke 2.19, Matthew 5.6, 25.42, Colossians 2.9-10, Luke 2.19
1 Corinthians 15.52
1 Corinthians 2.6-16
Matthew 26.26, Mark 14.22, Luke 22.19, 1 Corinthians 14.19
Peter and Paul, Thomas of India and the Magdalen
Pater Noster] Matthew 6.8, Romans 8.26, Ephesians 3.17
Matthew 6.8-10, Luke 11.1-2, Romans 8.26, Ephesians 3.17
Matthew 6.8,13, 11.28-30, Romans 8.26-30 
2 Corinthians 12.1-17
Luke 17.21, Hebrews 11.13-16, Revelation 22.5, 2 Corinthians 3.18
John 21.15-17, Revelation 2.17
Romans 8.1-8, 1 Corinthians 15.54-57
Romans 8
Romans 8.26-27
Matthew 5.43, 6.12, 19.19, 22.37-39, Mark 12.31,33, Luke 10.27, 11.4

 

The 'clerc', the scholar, needs humility and truth to approach a text. To do so with pride, with hate, with envy, with plagiary, taking credit as one's own work the work of another, is 'trahison', 'betrayal'. We see, studying Julian and the Middle Ages, the difficulties caused by the Neo-Platonist Pseudo-Dionysius' lie, where he claims that he was witness to the Crucifixion and to Paul's sermon on the Athenian Areopagus, in order to 'validate' his un-Christian elitist hierarchies, of angels, men, women, children, though he was living several centuries after these events. The Gospel and the Book of the Acts of the Apostles had included the women at the Cross and, as well, the woman Demaris who, with the true Dionysius, converts at the Pauline sermon. Pseudo-Dionysus 'noughts' us. Julian speaks to her even-Christian and includes all of us.
 

Notes

Letters from Ian Doyle of Durham University, 27 July 1995, noting watermarks corresponding to Briquet 13215, 2556-7, dated and placed, 1583, Antwerp, 1569, 1583; and Marie Pierre Lafitte, conservateur-en-chef, of the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, 14 June 1995, noting watermarks corresponding to 5854, 5857, dated and placed Flanders, 1580, 1572, stating that the script of the Paris Julian Manuscript corresponds to those dates.

** An e-mail came about comparing Julian of Norwich and the Song of Solomon,

I am working on a research paper on Julian of Norwich and the Songs of Songs.  I discovered on your web site a few of the Songs references in the text, and am unable to get the SISMEL version that it refers to.  I have checked out one translated by you as well as the Penguin edition ed. by Spearing.  It would be a great help to me if you would provide page numbers or the actual text that aligns with the scriptures: Song of Solomon 3:11, Song of Solomon 3: 1-4, Song 4.9 (Vulgata), Song 1:4.
To which I replied with the following:
That's a great topic. Birgitta of Sweden uses the theme more than does Julian of Norwich, and where Julian does so she, or her editor, is often quoting Birgitta.

W84v/3.11 Egredimini et videte, filiae Sion, regem Salomonem
in diademate, qua coronavit illum mater sua
in die desponsationis illius et in die laetitiae cordis eius.

And we be his coroun . and
this was a singular meruell
& full delectable beholdyng that
we be his coroun.

Prologue ii.3/4.9 Vulnerasti cor meum, soror mea sponsa  . . .

the thurde was to haue of godes
gyfte thre woundys

II.x.20/3.1-4 In lectulo meo per noctes quaesivi quem diliget anima mea . . .

                                         And thus
I sawe him. and sought him. and I
had hym, and wantyd him
 
IX.xxii.42v/3.11

we be his crowne. And this was a
syngular marveyle and a full delecta=
ble beholdyng. that we be hys crowne.

X.xxiii.46/3.11

            Another is that he brou=
ght vs vp in to hevyn and made vs for to
be hys crowne and hys endlesse blysse.

xiv.xliv.80/1.4 (Vulgate 1.3) Introduxit me rex in cellaria sua

  And he drawyth
vs to hym by loue.

XIV.li.106/3.11

ffor it was
schewede that we be his crowne.
whych crown is the faders Joy. the
sonnes wyrshyppe. the holy gostys
lykyng.

XIV.li.108/1.4

  He is with us in hevyn very man
in his owne person vs vpdrawyng.

XIV.lviii.123/ general.
This part is not in the Julian text, but in the editor's chapter heading to the Sloane Manuscript, taken from Birgitta's Revelationes, and reads thus:

God was Never Displeased with his Chosen Wife . . .

A105/3.11

we er his crowne.

See if you can get your University's library to order the volume from SISMEL or from me. I also think now you can go back to the St Johns Abbey Liturgical Press text and find the page numbers.

"You see," writes Catherine of Siena, speaking in the person of the eternal Father, "this sweet and loving Word born in a stable, while Mary was journeying; to show to you, who are travellers, that you must ever be born again in the stable of knowledge of yourselves, where you will find Him born by grace within your souls."


Bibliography

Abbot, Christopher. Julian of Norwich: Autobiography and Theology. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1999.

Thomas Aquinas. Summa Theologiae: Summa theologiae : Latin text and English translation, introductions, notes, appendices, and glossaries. London : Blackfriars/ Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1964-1981.

Auerbach, Erich. Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature. Trans. Willard Trask. Garden City: Doubleday, 1957.

Barratt, Alexandra. 'How Many Children had Julian of Norwich? Editions, Translations and Versions of her Revelations'. Vox Mystica: Essays for Valerie M. Lagorio. Ed. Ann Clark Bartlett, Thomas Bestul, Janet Goebel and William F. Pollard. Cambridge: Brewer, 1995. Pp. 27-39.

Bauerschmidt, Frederick Christian. Julian of Norwich and the Mystical Body Politic of Christ. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1999.

Beaurline, Lester A. A Mirror for Modern Scholars. New York: Odyssey Press, 1966.

Bloom, Harold. The Anxiety of Influence: A Theory of Poetry. Oxford: University Press, 1975.

Bowers, Fredson. Principles of Bibliographical Description. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1949.

Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature and Method. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968.

Curtius, Ernst Robert. European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages. New York: Harper and Row, 1953.

Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents. Trans. James Strachey. New York: W.W. Norton, 1962.

Gibbon, Edward. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. London: J.M. Dent, 1928. 6 vols.

Gillespie, Vincent and Maggie Ross. '"With Mekenesse aske Perseverantly": On Reading Julian of Norwich'. Mystics Quarterly 30 (September/December 2004) 122-137.

Jauss, Hans Robert. Toward an Aesthetic of Reception. Trans. Timothy Bahti. Introduction, Paul de Man. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982. Theory and History of Literature 2.

Holloway, Julia Bolton. Website: http://www.umilta.net Includes St Birgitta of Sweden with entire Revelationes in Latin and Julian of Norwich.

____________. Brunetto Latini. Il Tesoretto . Edition, Translation, Preface. New York: Garland, 1981. Garland Library of Medieval Literature, 2. Ed. James J. Wilhelm.

____________. Brunetto Latini: An Analytic Bibliography . London: Grant and Cutler , 1986. Research Bibliographies and Checklists. Ed. Alan Deyermond.

___________. The Pilgrim and the Book: A Study of Dante, Langland and Chaucer. Berne, New York: Peter Lang , 1987. Second edition, 1989. xix + 321 pp. Third, revised, edition, 1993.

Equally in God's Image: Women in the Middle Ages. Edited, Julia Bolton Holloway, Constance S. Wright and Joan Bechtold. Berne, New York: Peter Lang, 1990.

___________. Birger Gregersson and Thomas Gascoigne. The Life of Saint Birgitta of Sweden . Translated from Middle English by Julia Bolton Holloway. Toronto: Peregrina Publishing Co, 1991.

_____________. Twice-Told Tales: Brunetto Latino and Dante Alighieri. New York: Peter Lang, 1993.

Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Aurora Leigh and Other Poems. Edited, John Robert Glorney Bolton and Julia Bolton Holloway. Harmondsworth: Penguin Classics , 1995.

______________. The Julian Library Portfolio. Florence: Julian Library Project, 1996-.
 

______________. Jerusalem: Essays on Pilgrimage and Literature. New York: AMS Press, 1998.

Brunetto Latini. Il Tesoretto . Privately reprinted in different format, facsimile of manuscript, two volume, boxed set. Introduction, Franca Arduini, Forward, Francesco Mazzoni, Transcription, Julia Bolton Holloway. Florence: Le Lettere (Libreria Commissionaria Sansoni; Biblioteca Laurenziana), 2000.

_____________. Saint Bride and Her Book: Birgitta of Sweden's Revelations. Translated from Latin and Middle English with Introduction, Notes and Interpretative Essay. Library of Medieval Women. Series Editor, Jane Chance. Cambridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2000. Revised, republished, third time, from 1992, 1997 editions.

Tales within Tales: Apuleius through Time. Edited, Constance S. Wright and Julia Bolton Holloway. New York: AMS Press, 2000.

_____________. Saint Bride and Her Book: Birgitta of Sweden's Revelations. Translated from Latin and Middle English with Introduction, Notes and Interpretative Essay. Library of Medieval Women. Series Editor, Jane Chance. Cambridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2000.

Julian of Norwich. Showing of Love: Extant Texts and Translation. Edited. Sister Anna Maria Reynolds, C.P. and Julia Bolton Holloway. Florence: SISMEL Edizioni del Galluzzo , 2001. Biblioteche e Archivi 8.

Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Aurora Leigh: Romanzo in versi. Trad. Bruna Dell'Agnese, ed. Julia Bolton Holloway, AD. Florence: Le Lettere, 2002.

Julian of Norwich. Showing of Love. Translated, Julia Bolton Holloway. Collegeville: Liturgical Press; London; Darton, Longman and Todd, 2003.


 

Beata Umilta: Sguardo sulla Santa Umiltà: Contemplating on Holy Humility. Julia Bolton Holloway. Translated Fabrizio Vanni. Florence: Editoriale gli Arcipressi, 2004. Colour Plates of Pietro Lorenzetti's Altarpiece Panels.

Hand-bound, limited edition, books, set in William Morris typeface:

Julian of Norwich. Showing of Love. Westminster Cathedral Manuscript. Ed., trans., printed, bound, Julia Bolton Holloway. Florence: Biblioteca e Bottega Fioretta Mazzei, February, Aureo Anello Press, 2003.

Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Sonnets and Ballad. Ed. Julia Bolton Holloway, trad. di Bruna Dell'Agnese. Florence: Aureo Anello Press, 2004

__________. Julian on Prayer. Florence: Aureo Anello Press, 2004

Julian of Norwich. XVI. Revelations of Divine Love Shewed to a Devout Servant of our Lord, Called Mother Juliana, an Anchorete of Norwich who lived in the days of King Edward the Third. Ed. R. F. Serenus Cressy . 1670. [Base text, lost manuscript, exemplar to P, compared with SS.]

_______________. Revelations of Divine Love, shewed to a devout Anchoress, by name Mother Julian of Norwich. Ed. Henry Collins from British Library, Sloane 2499. London, 1877.

_______________. Revelations of Divine Love Shewed to a devout Ankress, by name Julian of Norwich. Ed. Dom G. Roger Huddleston, O.S.B., Monk of Downside Abbey. London: Burns Oates & Washbourne, 1927.

_______________. 'An Edition of MS. Sloane 2499 of Sixteen Revelations of Divine Love'. Ed. Francis Reynolds (Sister Anna Maria, C.P.) M.A. Thesis, Leeds University, 1947. [Cited in notes as AMR1947. Base text, S1]

_______________. 'A Critical Edition of the Revelations of Julian of Norwich (1342-c.1416), Prepared from all the Known Manuscripts with Introduction, Notes and Select Glossary'. Ed. Francis Reynolds (Sister Anna Maria, C.P.) D. Phil., Leeds University, 1956. [Cited as AMR1956. Base texts, A,P(S1,S2),W.]

_______________. A Revelation of Love . Ed. Marion Glasscoe from British Library, Sloane 2499. Exeter: University of Exeter, 1976, 1986. [Base text, S1].

_______________. A Book of Showings to the Anchoress Julian of Norwich. Ed. Edmund Colledge, O.S.A. and James Walsh, S.J., from all extant manuscripts. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1978. 2 vols. Studies and Texts 35.[Cited as CW. Base texts, A,P (collated with W,S1,S2)].

_______________. Julian of Norwich's Revelations of Divine Love: The Shorter Version Ed. from B.L. MS. 37790. Ed. Frances Beer. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1978. [Base text, A.]

The Shewings of Julian of Norwich. Ed. Georgia Ronan Crampton. Kalamazoo: Western Michigan University Press, 1994. [Base text, C1, excerpts A,M]

'Julian of Norwich: The Westminster Text of A Revelation of Love'. Ed. Hugh Kempster. Mystics Quarterly 22 (1997), 177-246. [W]

Julian of Norwich. Showing of Love: Extant Texts and Translation. Ed. Sister Anna Maria Reynolds, C.P., and Julia Bolton Holloway. Florence: Sismel: Edizioni del Galluzzo, 2001. Biblioteche e Archivi 8.
Reviewed, Nicholas Watson, Speculum

Kantorowicz, Ernst. The King's Two Bodies: A Study in Medieval Political Theology. New Preface, William Chester Jordan. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.

Gerhart B. Ladner. The Idea of Reform: Its Impact on Christian Thought and Action in the Age of the Fathers. New York: Harper, 1967.

Leclercq, Jean. The Love of Learning and the Desire for God: A Study of Monastic Culture. New York: Fordham University Press, 1977.

Literary History and the Challenge of Philology: The Legacy of Erich Auerbach. Ed. Seth Lerer. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996.

Lowes, John Livingston. The Road to Xanadu. New York: Vintage Books, 1959.

McKerrow, R. B. An Introduction to Bibliography for Literary Students. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1927.

Ong, Walter J, SJ, "Wit and Mystery: A Revaluation in Mediaeval Latin Hymnody, Speculum 22 (1947), 310-341.

Payne, Robert O. The Key of Remembrance: A Study of Chaucer's Poetics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963.

Sanders, Chauncey. An Introduction to Research in English Literary History. New York: Macmillan Company, 1962.

Sartre, Jean Paul. Critique of Dialectical Reason. Trans. Alan Sheridan-Smith. London: Verso, 1982.

Smalley, Beryl. The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1964.

Stock, Brian. Implications of Literacy: Written Language and Models of Interpretation in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries. Princeton: University Press, 1983.

Williams, George H. Wilderness and Paradise in Christian Thought: The Biblical Experience of the Desert in the History of Christianity and the Paradise Theme in the Theological Idea of the University.  New York: Harper & Brothers, 1962
 
 

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