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n order to edit the manuscripts of Julian of Norwich it was necessary also to study 'paleography', 'old writing'. For years, following a course on paleography from Professor Jean Preston, then Curator of Rare Books at Princeton University Library, I would purchase manuscript leaves, hoping to use these in teaching such courses to scholars desiring to edit medieval texts. But later living as a hermit in one room above Florence did not give me space to teach nor a spare room to give hospitality to such a scholar. So this screen became the classroom, you the student. That has now all changed. It could be possible for you to stay in a convent nearby and use our Mediatheca 'Fioretta Mazzei'§'s collection of books and manuscript leaves for the study of paleography and codicology as an introduction to reading the manuscripts themselves of Dante's Commedia, Apuleius' Golden Ass and many more, in such libraries as the Biblioteca Laurenziana, the Biblioteca Riccardiana, the Biblioteca Nazionale in Florence. Come to our City and Book Congresses§ in Florence, May/June 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, and then study paleography and textual editing under Julia Bolton Holloway§ , and calligraphy§ under such scribes as Brody Neuenschwander§, the scribe of Peter Greenaway's Prospero's Books, or book-binding under Enrico Giannini§, whose family have been binding books in Florence for generations, while spending the summer reading and researching in our great libraries and archives.

he study of books' binding is called 'codicology ', from the 'codex', or bound book with pages, a predominantly Christian practice taking over from the cumbersome, Egyptian, Greek and Roman scrolls or 'rotuli'. The Times said the earliest intact codex to survive was found under the head of a twelve-old slave girl buried in a pauper's grave in Egypt, that it was her beloved Psalter (Times 14 September 1992). But the early Christians were still using rotuli, a fresco of St Petronilla, St Peter's daughter, showing her in the Catacombs of Domitilla with a circular leather box, a capsa, stuffed full of such rotuli, an entire Bible, at her side, a bound Bible as codex at her side.

Veneranda escorted by St Petronilla with Bible
Catacomb of Domitilla, Cubicle of Veneranda, after 356

Book production shifted from Rome with its decline, due to the breaking of the aquaducts, the cooking in lead pots, leading to impure water, brain damage, malaria, to the periphery, the margins. Coptic Christians taught the Irish the Gospels, and the Irish taught the Northumbrian Anglo-Saxons. These Anglo-Saxon monks brought back to Wearmouth Jarrow Cassiodorus' fine library, amongst the books Cassiodorus' great pandect of the Bible, from which were copied such works as the Lindisfarne Gospels, a portion of a folio shown below, and the Codex Amiatinus , which then made its way back to Italy, being today in the Biblioteca Laurenziana in Florence.

Lindisfarne Gospels, opening of Luke's Gospel, 'MULTI CONA[N]TI SUN ORDINA[ RE N]ARRATIONEM', Old English interlinear gloss, in which Luke writes to Theophilus, ' Friend of God ', telling him that many have sought to narrate the Life of Christ as their Gospel ministry, and he is assembling and organizing these accounts after verifying them. A cat plays with birds in the margin. (Compare, too,  its use of dots with Aborigine art, the Irish sense of the Dead, their contribution of the concept of Purgatory to the Church, with Australian 'Ancestors' Dream Time'.) By Permission of the British Library, Lindisfarne Gospels, St Luke's Gospel, Cotton Nero D.IV.fol.139. Reproduction Prohibited. This is scanned from the Mouse Pad on sale in their Bookshop.

Compare this work with embroidery.

and sculpture. It can also be found in metal work, as at the Sutton Hoo ship burial.


Manuscripts, as in the Lindisfarne Gospels, the Book of Kells, could be exquisitely decorated. Moreover, medieval manuscript pages of script, with alternating reds and greens in earlier ones, as with the vitae of Saints Pega and Guthlac , reds and blues in later ones, were not only pleasing to the eye, but deliberately memorable to the brain. Mary Carruthers writes of this in The Book of Memory: A Study of Meaning in Medieval Culture. This Julian of Norwich, Showing of Love , Website replicates the colouring of medieval manuscripts for this same reason, to make its screens of texts both pleasurable and memorable. If I changed these pages back into the black ink and white paper of modern books, or the gray/grey monotone background of many modern screens, your attention would wander and boredom set in. Its background colour is the goldivory (chriselephantine) of parchment and vellum, of once living and thus organic origin, its brown font, that of hand-made inks in scriptoria, jazzed up freely with shimmering gold leaf , the glorious primary colours of red , and blue or, earlier, green, their neon lighting, their 'dayglo' psychedelic colouring. Microsoft gives us the early medieval  KELT font, from the BOOK OF KELLS ,  used here for titles in the later Cistercian blue and red (but which may not show on your computer):


In many ways this modern and electronic technology can return us to more ancient, and most beautiful, technologies concerning writing. Our young people hunger for such beauty in the sacred written page, producing it clandestinely, in revolt, on railway carriages and railroad tunnels as graffitti. (I remember, but do not have the citation to, an article by Norman Mailer on this aspect.) Once, on a manuscript scrounge in Belgium, from a train I saw on the side of a barn the most glorious purple background upon which were golden letters of imperial codices.

We scroll through texts on screen as once had Greeks and Romans through their rotuli of papyri before the Christians invented the bound codex. Moreover, medieval texts were first written out impermanently, like e-mails, on diptyches, hinged wax tablets, as we see with Hildegard von Bingen

Hildegard of Bingen writing on hinged wax tablets,
bottom left, Lucca Manuscript

and Jan van Ruusbroec ,

Jan van Ruusbroec writing on wax tablets,
his scribe entering the text upon parchment.

For two digitalized manuscripts of Birgitta's Revelationes in their entirety: http://laurentius.lub.lu.se/§

their scribes then entering this material upon parchment and vellum for posterity. If we look carefully at both miniatures (a word derived from the minium, the red, used for rubricating and decorating manuscripts, rather than tininess), we can see that Hildegard is first given a scroll from the hand of God, Ruusbroec inspired by the Dove of the Spirit. Writing in the Middle Ages was a communal act, communing with God and with one's book producer. We ourselves on the Internet can return to the glorious colours of Egyptian, Roman and medieval texts, lost with the cost-effectiveness of printed books of black on white . And for us colour, even gold, even light itself, unlike what it was for medieval scribes and their rubricators , is free. Best of all is to carry out this task, as did medieval contemplatives, in prayer, in sacred conversation, with God, who gave us the promise of the rainbow, for all, young and old, schooled and self-teaching.

In the Amherst Manuscript , which is possibly written during Julian's lifetime, we may be seeing in its corrections, Julian's own hand putting in lines her scribe has missed.

If you want to study paleography seriously I suggest the now online Otto F. Ege Portfolio, and the following manuscript leaves, as worthy of study. As with languages, keep pushing yourself to understand their written words, and attempt to hear them in your mind. Medieval reading was not silent! What they quilled and quired was even sung, gloriously:

Otto F. Ege Leaf 27
Italy, Gradual

This is the opening of Julian of Norwich's Showing of Love in the Westminster Cathedral Manuscript :

Ure gracious & goode/ lorde god shewed me in/ party the wisdom & the trewthe/ of the soule of oure blessed lady/ saynt mary. where in I vnder/stood the reuerent beholdynge/ that she behelde her god that is/ her maker. maruelynge with/ grete reuerence that he wolde be borne of her that was a/ simple creature of his makyng.

th using the single 'thorn' letter, ss being long-tailed, us and vs the reverse of our practice, and n abbreviated with a macron above previous letter. The manuscript, though giving the date, '1368' on its first folio, is written out circa 1500 at Brigittine Syon Abbey in England, most probably by a Brigittine nun wearing St Birgitta's specified black veil with white crown and cross, joined at the interstices with the five roundels signifying the five wounds of the crucified Christ . . . . .

he following leaf or folio is from an illuminated Psalter made in Italy, circa 1480. Its script is the lovely rounded Bolognan libraria, or Book Hand, carried over from the Romanesque period, and constantly used in Italy while France and the north of Europe shifted to the spiky Gothic script. It alternates capitals in reds and blues, which, as we noted above, was a memory system used in manuscripts, both pleasing to the eye and memorable to the mind, but forgotten with the cost-effective black and white only of later printed books. Julian's Amherst Manuscript uses similar techniques though there the capitals are all blue with red ornamental penwork flourishes.

It is suggested you store these files, then call them up, and expand their images to the original sizes to study them offline.

The opposite side of this leaf, or folio, its verso, the above being its recto, gives

At the top of this page in rubrics we learn this is from one of the Psalms for Vespers, at the top of the previous page that these are the Psalms for the third week. A folio is of two pages, the first side being the recto, the second the verso, and were numbered so, rather than by pagination. Books were bound so that hair and flesh sides matched up together in the gatherings. The size of this folio is smaller than that of a modern paper back book's page, 158 x 111 millimetres, just right for carrying in a pocket when travelling. The entire volume was likely bound in brilliant red leather, dyed not with cochineal, but with kermes beetles, with a clasp to keep its pages flat. It would have been owned by a monk or a nun and used constantly, the Psalter featuring in all the seven Offices or Hours of Prayer in the monastery and convent.

his leaf is from Julian's own life time and her own region of England, circa 1400, East Anglia. It is from a Breviary's Sanctorale for November 1, All Saints' Day.


Here we see that the alternating capitals are in pink and blue with gold leaf, that the text is much rubricated , and that the script is the spiky northern Gothic, rather than the Italian rounded Romanesque. The use of rubrication can be seen in such ancient Egyptian writings as The Book of the Dead, and usually for sacred words amidst secular ones. In Julian of Norwich's Paris Manuscript , Christ's words to her are so rubricated , like a Red Letter Bible . Though in such a manuscript as this rubrics are used to indicate instructions, rather than read or sung text. The vellum is extremely fine, the transparency of it interfering with reproduction. The quill is minuscule. The leaf, which has been badly cropped across the top, measures 119 x 89 millimetres.

his much later and very beautiful leaf of a litany of the saints, includesSt Dionysius and his companions. The Middle Ages, apart from Abelard, believed that St Dionysius was the saint who heard St Paul preach on the Areopagus, then converted, with Demaris, to Christianity, and wrote the works of Pseudo-Dionysius, which Julian mentions, then came to France, being martyred at Montmartre.

Norwich Cathedral, West Nave and Window

The Gothic style began at St Denis , attempting to convey in stone and glass the Neoplatonic aesthetics of Pseudo-Dionysius, then was copied throughout Europe, including by Julian's own Norwich Cathedral of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity.

is half way down the above recto folio.

The leaf measures 118 x 156 millimetres. The manuscript, a Book of Hours, is from Northern France, circa 1470.

While this manuscript of the writings of Pseudo-Dionysius, in Cambridge University Library and once owned by Cardinal Adam Easton, Benedictine of Norwich, is thirteenth-century and Victorine, from Paris.

nd from Spain, later than the above, is this huge leaf too large for me to scan in its entirety. It has come out of a vast book used on a lectern for monks to sing from in choir. Gradual, Mass for Thursday of Easter Week. Fifteenth or sixteenth century.

Its words speak of

[' Do]min[us] inducam
vos in terras flue
ntes lac et mel[e] alle [ luya]',

of God leading us into a land flowing with milk and honey, the mellifluous music echoing those words.

The top line is taken up with the mellifluous 'alleluya '. Then

'{Populus aquisitionis a[n]
nu[n]ciate uirtutues et ius alle . . .'

This is the right hand side of the previous detail. I deliberately bought this leaf in the Madrid open air antique market, hating seeing it cut from an already damaged bound book with a razor, rolled up and given to me, because of the hole in the parchment, repaired originally by sewing, but where the sheep's or cow's leg had caused a less than perfect piece of parchment for this particular folio. This leaf and others here also show the accumulated grease upon their pages from sweaty fingers. We are dealing with human artifacts and the Opus Dei of the Church is indeed labour by the sweat of brow and hand, especially where each book involved was made by hand, each letter written so.

And we find the continuation for the 'alle' on the verso, where I have scanned a portion of the text on the flesh side of the parchment. This folio verso also clearly shows the difference in colouring between hair/flesh sides.

[luya qui nos et tenebris uo
cauit in admirabile lumen]
suus alleluya.
duxit eos domin[us] in
alleluya et inimicos eo . . . '

When we assembled an exhibition of manuscript leaves owned by faculty members at the University of Colorado, Boulder, I was chagrined to find this leaf identified as Italian. 'It is Spanish', I said. 'No, it is Italian', they said. 'I bought it in Spain', I said. 'But it came from Italy', they said. I explained Spanish and Italian manuscripts deeply influenced each other, Italian scribes being in Spain and vice versa, as I found in my research on Brunetto Latino and Alfonso el Sabio's exchanging of manuscripts between Spain and Florence, and that Spain adopted Italy's beautiful rounded Bolognan libraria. I also explained that this huge book could easily, on the spot, be made from the hides of cattle there, but not as easily transported over mountains such as the Alps and the Pyrenees.

I cannot resist, also, telling of my experience in the Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid where one pores over medieval manuscripts in a room whose walls are lined with paintings of Don Quixote poring over medieval manuscripts. We know what happened to him in consequence of his reading of medieval romances in the Renaissance! Madness!


t could be wise to ask the context of a manuscript and its scriptorium. Brian Stock's book, The Implications of Literacy, speaks of 'textual communities'. Let us examine the major communities which produced, owned and used manuscript books in the Middle Ages.

In the early Middle Ages, the writing of books was the exclusive domain of the monastery, books being written in their scriptoria , sometimes exchanged (we know of such exchanges between the abbeys at Winchester and Fleury, St Benoit-sur- Loire, including the texts of liturgical dramas), and they were read usually in carrels in the cloisters and in the refectory out loud. The world of the book also included women in convents who were noted as fine readers and writers and scribes and illuminators of books. Monastic books would be the Psalms (Psalters , as above), the Gospels, the Bible in its entirety, the Church Fathers , the classic texts by Roman authors, Terence, Virgil, Lucan, Statius, Ovid, etc., medicinal and herbal treatises, etc.

Then, in the twelfth century, the universities came into being, from which women were excluded for centuries to come. Universities required different kinds of books: the Decretals being typical, also Aristotle, whose philosophy was to be reconciled with theology with Aquinas' Summae , as well as massive commentaries to texts , the lecture notes surrounding the text as gloss. The universities coincide with the spiky Gothic script (which may have arisen from the Crusaders' exposure to Islamic and Hebrew culture, including the Arabic translations of Aristotle, as well as the Hebrew Bible). There would be a later conscious return to the Romanesque script for classical texts as deemed more appropriate to them - a dislike of Gothic - which would constitute the Humanist scripts and type fonts of the Renaissance.

In both the Romanesque and Gothic periods, besides the bookhands, libraria , there was also chancery script, used for legal documents and charters by Church and State, which derived from Roman cursive script. It is important to study this script as well as often information surrounding a book written in libraria can be uncovered in archival research, amidst such chancery documents written in that different script. Some books are even written in chancery script, for instance, the earliest Commedia by Dante's fellow chancery student under Brunetto Latino, Francesco da Barberino. While we lack an example of Dante's own hand, we learn that he typically wrote in chancery script, his letters being tall and elegant, not rounded.

For the laity became literate, especially the Italian merchant class, making use of the learning of chanceries, and they especially sought out vernacular texts, like the Roman de la Rose , the Commedia, the Canterbury Tales, and the Romances of King Arthur. A Dante Commedia can imitate a university text, with an illumination, like those in Terence's Comedies, its text in Italian, and its gloss in Latin, upon each page. Women meanwhile, excluded from education, prized the book as symbolic of a lost power and desired to own beautiful Books of Hours , for which see Quentin Massys' painting of the Flemish Merchant and his Wife. Entire Websites are given to studying such Book of Hours .

There has been some study of the contexts of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, of Langland's Piers Plowman . But in reality we need teams of scholars working together on projects in connection with the book: those wisdom books produced by Alfonso el Sabio in Spain, cross-linking with those produced by Brunetto Latino in exile and in Florence, next his student Dante Alighieri and the Commedia , and the book production centred around Birgitta of Sweden and Christine de Pizan, who are continuing that tradition of advising rulers of Europe on how to govern wisely and well, writing prophetic, sybilline books. Somewhere in all this is Julian of Norwich , quietly producing a domestic version, a homely version, a truly excellent version, of Birgitta of Sweden's massive Revelationes, not to influence kings but for her even-Christian, her work next being treasured in cloistered communities even and especially where these are driven into exile. And illiterate Margery Kempe copies them and Elizabeth Barton is made to do so. All this we plan to include on our international congresses on The City and the Book, La Citta` e il Libro , here in Florence, May, 2001, 2002, 2003.

Paintings can teach us a great deal about books, their bindings, their readership and their ownership, and should be consulted for such purposes far more often than they are at present. The Virgin at the Annunciation is shown surprised at her devotions, her lectio divina, in the midst of reading a book of the Word, her Psalter, or the prophecy of Isaiah concerning her. Monastics in their sober garb, black Benedictines, Dominicans in their white, carry startlingly brilliant red , kermes-dyed, leather-bound and clasped Office books.


Script , model which the scribe has in mind when he or she writes.

Hand , the particular scribe's writing.

Duct , the distinctive manner in which a particular scribe puts his strokes on the page, e.g. the angle of holding the pen, how the pen was cut, the degree of pressure holding the pen, the direction of the stroke, etc.

Stroke , a single line made by the pen on the page, if no change of direction is made in a single movement.

Broken stroke , a stroke on more than one movement, having a sudden change of direction.

Minim stroke , e.g., that used for i, the shortest and simplest stroke (one often has to count nimims as us, ms, ns, vs, ins, etc., can look alike, then work with context.

Otiose stroke , a superfluous stroke not part of a letter or abbreviation mark, most common at end of word to indicate that it may or may not end in -e.

Biting , the fusion of two strokes, woven together in textura.

Body of a letter is the part between two lines, excluding ascenders and descenders.

Lobe is the loop of p or b, etc, a curved stroke.

Headstroke , the cross of a t.

Ascender , descender, the part of a letter above or below the line.

Limb , part of a letter attached to the mainstroke, as right part of h.

Downstroke , direction of pen, thicker and more pressure than

Upstroke , direction of pen, thinner and without pressure.


icero's slave, Tyro, employed a form of shorthand, taking down his master's speeches, that continued to be used in medieval manuscripts because it saved parchment. The presence of an -m or -n could be indicated by a macron bar above the previous letter instead, the -us ending by various symbols, likewise -er, while the various words making use of p , like pro and pershowed that qualities by the placement of abbreviations on the p . In the Italian folio verso above the last blue capital gives the word ' T unc', but the n is merely a macron above the u , so it looks at first like ' T uc'. Following it, where there is more space you will also see ' T unc', now spelled out. In the Spanish leaf, 'Domin[us] ' gave the 'us' as like a '9'. A lengthy word like 'misericordiam ' might be written simply as (misericordiam ), as miam with abbreviations, thereby saving much parchment and being merciful to the sheep of which it is said it took a flock to make a Psalter. Pagan Romans used slaves as scribes, partly because the preparation of materials and writing upon scrolls was so cumbersome. Christians used both women and men in freedom and learning in the writing, illuminating, binding, reading and singing of and from codices.

The best way to learn these manuscript abbreviations is to purchase and study Adrian Capelli, Dizionario di Abbreviature latine ed italiane (Milan: Ulrich Hoepli), as this book is filled with plates and illustrations giving examples from all periods. There is also an on-line subscription version: http://www.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/philosophy/projects/abbrev.htm§ And now a free Russian one: http://www.hist.msu.ru/Departments/Medieval/Cappelli/ The abbreviations work not only for Latin but also are used in vernacular texts, for example in the Julian of Norwich Showing of Love manuscripts. The book is also of use in helping date manuscripts as particular abbreviation forms can belong to some periods and not to others. Not only does one need to learn script and abbreviation, taken over from Classical Rome, but also musical notation, taken over from Greek musical notation, employing neumes and later square notes, on first none, then four, then five stave lines, in medieval Christian books.

These abbreviations occur also in sculpture, even where inscriptions are given in Roman CAPITALS. Here we give the cantoria of Luca Della Robbia in the Museum of the Opera del Duomo, Florence, the parts of the inscription in grey being implied through abbreviations:

The Cantoria of Luca Della Robbia, today in the Museum of the Opera di Duomo, the above panel being in the bottom right recess below, beneath 'LAVD ATE EVM IN CIMBALIS IUBILANTIONIS; O MNIS SP IRITV S LAVDET
D OMIN V M', from Psalm 150.




Our terms: 'capital' and 'lower case', however come from the printing press and the cases of type, CAPITALS being kept in the top sections, at the head or CAPVT , the 'lower case' letters in the lower part of the case. INSCRIPTIONS in CAPITALS are given so in transcriptions.

In paleography one may well be giving texts from stone, as above and in the Ruthwell Cross , from silver, from wood, from fresco, from fabric, from skin, from paper. The rage to write is still about us in the graffitti on railroad carriages, and in advertisements and shop signs. Once it was almost exclusively for sacred purposes, now for commerce. But the young may well be attempting, inarticulately, and in rebellion against the world of commerce, to express the sacred, the dignity of the name, of the soul, in relation to God. I'll never forget seeing on a barn from a railroad carriage in Belgium great golden letters upon purple, like imperial texts, like Gospel texts.


s with numbers, so with dates, Romans liking to subtract, as well as add:

Mar, May, July, October__January, August, December__April, June, September, November__February
1 Kalends
2 VI__________________IV
3 V__________________III
4 IV_________________pridie Nones
5 III_________________Nones
6 pridie Nones_________VIII
7 Nones______________VII
8 VIII________________VI
9 VII_________________V
19 VI_________________IV
11 V_________________III
12 IV________________pridie Idus
13 III________________Idibus
14 pridie Idus__________XIX_________________XVIII_______________________XVI
15 Idibus_____________XVIII________________XVII________________________XV
16 XVII______________XVII________________XVI_________________________XIV
17 XVI___________________________________XV_________________________XIII
18 XV____________________________________XIV________________________XII
19 XIV___________________________________XIII_________________________XI
20 XIII___________________________________XII__________________________X
21 XII____________________________________XI__________________________IX
22 XI_____________________________________X__________________________VIII
23 X______________________________________IX_________________________VII
24 IX_____________________________________VIII________________________VI
25 VIII____________________________________VII_________________________V
26 VII_____________________________________VI_________________________IV
27 VI______________________________________V_________________________III
28 V_______________________________________IV________________________pridie Kalendas
29 IV______________________________________III________________________ Martias
30 III______________________________________pridies Kalendas
31 pridie Kalendas Maias, Quinctilis, Aprilis, Iunias, Novembris,
Sextilis, Februarius,Octobris, Decembris, Septembris, Ianuarius


edieval European manuscripts were carefully copied on to the skins of animals, on to parchment and the finer vellum, from an original text placed on hinged wax tablets. Somewhat like the process of preparing text with computer type-setting, with initial drafts, then the final version. Hair and flesh sides, for which see the Spanish leaf above, of the carefully prepared skins were matched up in order not to have too great a disparity between the one folio verso, and the next folio recto. Lines were pricked through the layers of skin for evenness then ruled, sometimes with a furrow cut into the parchment as guide. Benedictines were meat eaters, so parchment was readily available to them. Cistercians were vegetarians and until they started keeping sheep for wool on their land, had little access to parchment. By the Tudor period in England, however, Thomas More in Utopia was saying 'The sheep are eating the people', so many villagers being forced off the land and into the cities, their former living space used to graze sheep instead. Earlier documents had been prepared on rolls, or rotuli , of papyrus, such paper being re-introduced by the Arabs, and now used in bound books. St Birgitta 's own handwriting in Swedish of the Revelationes survives on sheets of Sienese paper, on scraps sewn together, likely by

St Birgitta, Revelationes Autograph Fragment, in Swedish on Sienese paper, Royal Library, Stockholm, Sweden

her. Paper manuscripts are not as beautiful, the ink soaking into the substance, as parchment or vellum ones, but are useful in dating a text's production because of their watermarks, trade marks used by paper makers and placed in the wires on which the sheets were placed to allow the water to drain from them, these indentations being more transparent than the rest of the sheet. We can date Julian of Norwich's Paris Manuscript to the Elizabethan period and as written on paper made in Flanders, thus by Brigittine nuns in exile there, not by the later foundation of English Benedictine nuns, because of the watermarks in the manuscript's paper folios. With the printing press and paper the memorable beauty of the medieval manuscript came to be lost. Until the possibility of reviving that cream background, the shimmer of gold leaf, the brilliance of alternating red and blue pigment, on the screens of our computers. Both technological developments, the printing press, the computer, can spread literacy, the computer restoring dimensions lost for centuries to texts.


merican scholars using Continental libraries are well-advised to come with a letter signed and sealed by their Chancellor, presenting their academic credentials as Visiting American Scholars. Chancellors enjoy exercising this privilege. British libraries prefer instead a letter of introduction from a well-known scholar in the field, a senior colleague. Also have photocopies of these documents to give to the librarians requesting them. In Mediterranean countries books are usually not given out during siesta hours though one may be able to stay and read during that time. Typically one exchanges one's passport for the book or manuscript, exchanging these back again on completion. The Vatican Library does this with the exchange of the key for one's locker! Having the language of the host country as well as that of the manuscripts one studies is most useful. It is also helpful to write ahead to the libraries where one knows one will do research. This is required, for instance, in Brussels. A Eurailpass is of the greatest assistance in spontaneously following leads in manuscripts. Plan to arrive at a city in the morning, rather than the evening, and book a place to stay at the Tourist office in the railroad station on that arrival. If one is clergy or religious there is the possibility of a monastic house's hospitality. If so, and you are studying in a monastery library, ask there on arrival. In the presence of medieval manuscripts one only makes notes in pencil, never pen, and exercises care not to touch the pages any more than is necessary. Bring your own small pencil sharpener as many libraries lack these. I put sharpened pencils, pencil sharpener, one pen for official documents, a tape measure, an eraser, a small magnifying glass, lists of shelf marks of manuscripts, library cards, and my passport, altogether in one small bag, taking care to remember to bring these and paper with me into the libraries. Remember to have all manuscript shelf marks written out and at hand. Other possessions one leaves outside in lockers. Don't forget glasses! Which they also had in the later Middle Ages.

On Book-Binding see Book-Binding in Florence: The Codex Amiatinus Facsimile




Please e-mail me with corrections to the URLs below: Julia Bolton Holloway§


The Way Back Machine archiving websites:http://www.archive.org/web/web.php§, or just type in 'Way Back Machine' in Google, then enter obsolete URL. They cannot archive complicated pages with frames and java but deal splendidly with simple html and jpg, etc.

For checking and correcting dead links on a portal website, Michael Fraser recommends: http://validator.w3.org/checklink§ This website checked 6/12/2016. Many librarians with lists below need to run link checker through theirs!


The French create the best websites concerning manuscripts:

http://expositions.bnf.fr/carolingiens/index.htm§ On the Book and the Caroline Empire

Breton manuscript blog http://blog.pecia.fr


The Dutch have catalogued all their manuscripts in all their libraries

something very much needed for manuscripts in England and Italy

The Best and Most Beautiful Virtual Library on the Web: http://www.fh-augsburg.de/~harsch/augustana.html

to which one hopes digitized manuscripts can be hypertexted

And Grover Furr's pdfs of early printed editions of major medieval texts can be downloaded by following the instructions here:


Individual Manuscripts:

A Splendid Digitized Manuscript: The Anchoress' Book. Christina of Markyate's St Albans Psalter

A Related but Earlier Project: http://www.abdn.ac.uk/bestiary/§

The magnificent British Library Christine de Pizan Manuscript: http://www.pizan.lib.ed.ac.uk§

The Auchinleck Manuscript is at http://www.nls.uk/auchinleck/§

Brunetto Latino, Il Tesoretto
Editorial Introduction
§, Julia Bolton Holloway,

Brunetto Latino, Il Tesoretto§, Brunetto Latino, Il Fagoletto§

Brunetto Latino, Maestro di Dante Alighieri: An Analytic and Interactive Bibliography


St Gall Manuscripts: http://www.cesg.unifr.ch/en/ This is a wonderful new website giving their manuscripts on line

Celtic Manuscripts:

Ireland, 'Irish Scripts on Screen': http://www.isos.dias.ie/§  Website includes links to other Celtic manuscript sites


Icelandic Manuscripts:

Árni Magnússon Institute http://www.am.hi.is§: This Collection on Iceland tells of the return from Denmark of Iceland's patrimony of manuscripts in 1971, a priceless heritage, and describes some of them. This website also gives excellent links, called 'Tenglar', to European collections with manuscripts. See as well Cornell's Saganet (Cornell having the largest Icelandic collection out of Iceland, thanks to Daniel Willard Fisk§, for which see Notti bianche d'Islanda a Firenze: William Morris e Daniel Willard Fiske/ Northern Lights in Florence: William Morris and Daniel William Fiske Kristín Bragadóttir, The National Library, Reykjavik): www.saganet.is

The companion/parent Arnamagnaean Institute in Copenhagen is where there are Icelandic manuscripts not returned from Denmark: nfi.ku.dk/english/collections/arnamagnaean_collection §


Brunetto Latino Manuscripts

Brunetto Latino, Il Tesoretto
Editorial Introduction
§, Julia Bolton Holloway,

Brunetto Latino, Il Tesoretto§, Brunetto Latino, Il Fagoletto§

Brunetto Latino, Maestro di Dante Alighieri: An Analytic and Interactive Bibliography
listing all known manuscripts and printed editions http://www.florin.ms/BrunLatbibl1.html


Birgitta of Sweden Manuscripts:

Uppsala, Uppsala universitetsbiblioteket, 'Carolina' http://www.ub.uu.se/§
Most Vadstena Abbey manuscripts came here at the Reformation. When I was reading Brigittine manuscripts, of which there are so many, they kept wheeling them out in a cart like the one you see here.

Stockholm, Kungliga biblioteket http://www.kb.se/§ This library has two folios in Birgitta of Sweden 's handwriting, part of one shown under 'St Birgitta's Revelations', of which I hope they will make a better and more complete scan, in Treasures in European Libraries: http://libraries.theeuropeanlibrary.org/treasures_en.xml§

Lund, Lunds universitetkbiblioteket http://www.lub.lu.se§

For their 'Manuscripts: Preservation and Access' see the excellent:

Manuscripts used as pastedowns in books:

Palermo, Sicily, http://www.regione.sicilia.it/beniculturali/bibliotecacentrale/menu.html§, giving excerpts from the fine manuscripts in Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Latin, including their Birgitta of Sweden Revelationes Manuscript


Julian of Norwich Manuscripts

British Library www.bl.uk/§
Four of eight Julian of Norwich Manuscripts are here: Amherst ; Sloane 1; Sloane 2; Stowe
Their Catalogue of Manuscripts is now being entered on the web and is searchable, though not as Julian of Norwich (which only yields the unique Margery Kempe manuscript), the British Library and the Dictionary of National Biography naming her instead, 'Juliana', at http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/manuscripts/§

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale http://www.bnf.fr/§[First click on 'Bibliothèque', then on 'Collections et départements', then on 'Le site Richelieu-Louvois', then on 'Manuscrits occidentaux', 'Manuscrits orientales' etc.]

The earliest Long Text Julian of Norwich Manuscript is here


Otto F. Ege Paleography Portfolios:

Otto F. Ege Paleography Portfolio - Fifty-One Leaves from Medieval Manuscripts - Otto F. Ege at Cleveland bought and dismembered manuscripts making these up into portfolios for the teaching of paleography at different institutions. It would be possible digitally to reassemble these dismembered manuscripts and it is hoped that the institutions possessing them could collaborate on such a project.

Carey Graphics Arts Collection at the Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, N.Y.

Otto F. Ege Original Leaves from Famous Books, Digitized

The Otto F. Ege Portfolio Project

The Otto F. Ege Portfolio

The Otto F. Ege Portfolio: Colorado University Library
Also, use Google with 'Colorado Otto Ege' to retrieve pdf:§


http://teca.bmlonline.it/TecaRicerca/index_ENG.html § Florence's Laurentian Library, Pluteus MSS

Bodleian Library http://www.rsl.ox.ac.uk§ Oxford University.

Early Manuscripts at Oxford University http://image.oc.ac.uk/§ is beginning this task, but not all folios are digitized, even of the manuscripts they show.

Durham University Library, Palace Green Library, Manuscripts
Official site lacks images, though there is an earlier website having them, for which see:

Copenhagen non-Icelandic digitized manuscripts: http://www.kb.dk/da/nb/materialer/haandskrifter/e_mss.html§

A magnificent private manuscript collection in Norway: http://www.nb.no/baser/schoyen/index.html§

University of Cologne, 'Codices Electronici Ecclesiae Coloniensis' (CEEC):

University of Salzburg
http://www.ubs.sbg.ac.at/sosa/webseite/hsskat.htm§ http://www.ubs.sbg.ac.at/sosa/webseite/sosaeng.htm§

A tantalizing glimpse at Slovakian illuminations: http://www.manuscript.szm.sk/stranky/uvodna.htm§
Go to Book-Painting, then the three Galleries with enlarging images

All of the above being ideal ways for libraries to digitize and publish their medieval manuscripts

'Les Enluminures' in Paris has a splendid, though commercial (they are selling these manuscripts), website with many fine examples of medieval manuscripts: http://www.textmanuscripts.com§


http://home.hetnet.nl/~otto.vervaart/digital_heritage_en.htm Websites by Otto Vervaart on digitizing manuscripts

Also consult:

Iter: Medieval Manuscript Catalogue http://www.itergateway.org§aRequires Subscription

Medieval Library Portal Website http://www.uca.edu/divisions/academic/history/mdvl.htm§ Links

Manuscript Facsimile Library: http://www.library.uiuc.edu/mdx/medstud/manuscript.htm§

Hebrew Manuscript Facsimiles Collection at University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee http://www.uwm.edu/Libraries/special/collections/jewish-studies/bibliography.html§

Better than our lists is that of http://www.intute.ac.uk/§, then searching 'Medieval Manuscripts' which gives 167 entries

The Paleography and Codicology Discussion List's Bob Peckham gave:

Research Tools for Manuscript Studies, Paleography, Codicology


Textual scholarship is arguably blessed by the internet.  Scholars can exchange paleographic, codicological and other philological information individually or on listservs like MEDTEXTL. They can work in teams, examining text and digitized color photographs shared as e-mail attachments, or as files from FTP directories, in JPEG, GIF and other image formats on web pages, debating the significance of a serrif, or evidence of a trimmed manuscript page.  The distance separating team members is little relevant.

In addition, textual scholars can produce critical editions on the web which would not be given due consideration by traditional publishers, not because of quality or of methodological soundness, but simply because of the money involved in producing critical editions that are fully appropriate for a variety of readers, and which take advantage of the enormous amount of relevant information available in our time. These editions will certainly enhance the reader's ability to judge the validity of an editor's choice of manuscripts or readings...

To promote the increasingly possible concept of shared knowledge in medieval manuscript studies extending beyond the walls of remote and wealthy collections, I offer the following list of links, divided according to named criteria.  Link titles have been reproduced as transfered from web pages.

Bob Peckham


Labyrinth. Click on Manuscripts

The Orb. Try searching 'Manuscripts'

ARCHIM/Archives nationales images de documents

Catalogue of manuscript catalogues

Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia

Bibliographie analytique sur les bibliothèques cisterciennes (arrêtée à l'année 1996)
Site still has some essays on manuscripts and illumination but not bibliography

Hill Monastic Manuscript Library

HoBo - History of the Book @ Oxford

Manuscript Manual, from Hungary, in English, Hungarian, Italian, Russian, excellent:

Manuscript Studies Medieval and Early Modern

Manuscripts and Early Prints

Medieval Multimedia - Digitizing the Middle Ages

'Some Variables Involved in Document Analysis'

Texts, Manuscripts, and Palaeography

Textual Criticism and Manuscript Interpretation

The TEI [Text Encoding Initiative] Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange (updated to 2007) is at http://www.tei-c.org.uk/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/html/MS.html§ I have found this system unwieldly and unhelpful. Its birth is in the more limiting days of mainframe concordance generating, where it sought to replicate manuscripts' appearances through coding at a time when these could neither be virtually replicated through images such as jpg nor textually through html. With jpg and html (Hypertext Markup Language) and its colours, it is easier and simpler to digitize manuscript folios and transcribe them (what you see is what you get, WYSIWYG), side by side, replicating their layouts virtually, rather than through costly and time-consuming acrobatics that do not result in an exact duplication nor which render the manuscript readable in its original way to modern readers, sharing these unique treasures on the World Wide Web. A fundamental principle in Physics is that a simple machine works more efficiently than a complicated one.

Editing Materials & The History of Books and Printing: Some Related Links

The Indispensible Kristeller


Computers & Texts
http://users.ox.ac.uk/ ctitext/publish/comtxt/*§

Gazette du livre medieval

Manuscript Studies (Columbia University Libraries). Needs updating.

Manuscripta Orientalia

Manuscripts - Medieval Studies, at Stanford University

Studies in Bibliography (Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia)

Traditio: Manuscripts and Transmission of Texts (subject index)


Folio, Manuscript: Paleography, Codicology

Abbreviationes  (for medieval Latin paleography 60,000 entries)

Portal for Paleography

Byzantine Paleography

'Comite international de paleographie latine' gives the following three URLs:

Institut de recherche et d'histoire des textes:

Comité international de paléographie latine:

APICES, Association paléographique internationale (...)

Ductus Paleography Course, ed. by Bernard Muir

Glossary of Terms Used in Paleography [emphasis on Greek mss]

Historische Hilfswissenschaften


Research Links: Palaeography

Transmission des textes - Documents d'archives - Paléographie/Übersicht der Übersicht der Seiten


Carolingian Writing Centers

Exposition 200 Reliures du Moyen-Age a nos jours

Formes sous lesquelles les sources diplomatiques nous sont parvenues

Research Links: MSS


Archive of Papers and Watermarks in Greek Manuscripts

Thomas Gravell Watermark Collection

The WWW Watermark Archive Initiative


Codex Manesse


MS. Ashmole 1462 (Miscellaneous medical and herbal texts, in Latin England, late 12th century

*British Library - Digital Library - Beowulf

The Electronic Beowulf

About the Brut Manuscript Images: Technical Information, Feedback and Related Sources

The Canon of John Lydgate Project

The Cantigas de Santa Maria

The Charrette Project

Mystere dou jour dou jugement

The Piers Plowman Electronic Archive

Digital Roman de la Rose Project

Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry


See also above list of libraries digitizing their manuscripts.

The Bergendal Collection of Medieval Manuscripts (125 - largest private collection)

BNF - Manuscrits orientaux
http://www.bnf.fr/§ [First click on 'Bibliothèque', then on 'Collections et départements', then on 'Le site Richelieu-Louvois', then on 'Manuscrits occidentaux', 'Manuscrits orientaux' etc.]

British Library - Manuscripts. Go to 'Turning the Pages', which is not very satisfactory for scholars.

Choix de Miniatures des manuscrits de l'université de Liège

Database of alchemical manuscripts - Wellcome Institute


Digital Scriptorium

Duke's Papyrus Collection

Early Manuscripts at Oxford University

Electronic Access to Hill Monastic Manuscript Library

Paul Halsall, "Byzantine Manuscript Indices Bibliography"

Mediaeval manuscripts and illumination (from the Koninklijke Bibliotheek - Netherlands)

Penn Library Medieval Manuscript Microforms (extensive collection)

PhiloBiblon (Iberian Peninsula manuscripts)

Pre-1600 Manuscripts in Stanford's Special Collections

Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Columbia University (Images from Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts)

Repository of Primary Sources (link page to ms holdings, archives, etc.)

Uncatalogued Manuscript Control Center

University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon (medieval ms descriptions and searchable datebase)





Useful guide to abbreviated references:

Project for Capelli in Greek

http://www.leavesofgold.org/§ Philadelphia Manuscript Libraries' Project

Teaching Manuscripts, Berkeley, Columbia; a team-teaching project that could be a a prototype for Reykjavik, Copenhagen, etc.

Please, write to me with corrections you find to above URLs Julia Bolton Holloway


The following books are owned by the Biblioteca e Bottega Fioretta Mazzei, The 'English' Cemetery, Piazzale Donatello, 39, Florence, and can be made available for the use of scholars working in Florentine manuscripts libraries. Library membership is through the gift of a book, annually.

Manuscripts, Paleography, Codicology, Printing:

*=on larger shelves

See also manuscript facsimiles, Drama, Chaucer, DALETH§, microfilms, CDs, etc. KHETH§.

J.J.G. Alexander. The Decorated Letter. New York: George Braziller, 1978.*

J.J.G. Alexander. Italian Renaissance Illuminations. New York: George Braziller, 1977.*

Dante Alighieri. La Divina Commedia. Illustrated, Sandro Botticelli. Firenze: Le Lettere, 1996.

Vittorio Alinari. Paesaggi italici nella "Divina Commedia". Firenze: Giorgio e Piero Alinari, 1921. 439/500 numbered copies. Autograph.*

David Anderson. Sixty Bokes Olde and Newe: Manuscripts and Early Printed Books from Libraries in and near Philadelphia illustrating Chaucer's Sources, His Works and Their Influence, Catalogue of the Exhibition held at the Arthur Ross Gallery and the Rosenbach Museum and Library 20 March-20 April, 1986.

Animals and the Symbolic in Mediaeval Art and Literature. Ed. L.A.J.R. Houwen. Groningen: Egbert Forsten, 1997.

Archivi sonori: Atti dei seminari di Vercelli (22 gennaio 1993), Bologna (22-23 settembre 1994), Milano (7 marzo 1995). Roma: Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, 1999. Pubblicazioni degli Archivi di Stato Saggi 53. Includes Giovanni Contini, "Alcune esperienze di conservazioni degli archivi sonori fuori d'Italia", pp. 151-157.novembre 1991.

Ashmole Bestiary, c. 1210, Bodleian Library. Portfolio.

The Auchinleck Manuscript: National Library of Scotland Advocates' MS 19.2.1. Introduction, Derek Pearsall, I.C. cunningha,. London: The Scolar Press, 1977. Facsimile.*

Janet Backhouse. The Illuminated Manuscript. Oxford: Phaidon, 1979.*

Janet Backhouse. The Lindisfarne Gospels: A Masterpiece of Book Painting. London: The British Library, 1995. Máire Herbert, Cork, 2001.

Janet Backhouse. The Luttrell Psalter. London: The British Library, 1989.

Janet Backhouse and Christopher de Hamel. The Becket Leaves. London: The British Library, 1988.

George Bain. Celtic Art, The Methods of Coinstruction. New York: Dover, 1973.*

Giulio Battelli. Lezioni di Paleografia. Città del Vaticano: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1936/1991.

Los Beatos. Ed. Luis Vázquez de Parga, Manuel D. Diáz y Diáz, John Williams. Madrid: Biblioteca Nacional, 1986.*

Malachi Beit-Arié. Hebrew Manuscripts of East and West: Toward a Comparative Codicology. London: The British Library, 1992. The Panizzi Lectures, 1992.

Adelaide Bennett, Jean F. Preston, William P. Stoneman. A Summary Guide to Western Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts at Princeton University. Princeton: University Library, 1991.

La Bibbia a stampa da Gutenberg a Bodoni. Firenze: Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Biblioteca Nazionale C entrale, 8 ottobre-23 novembre 1991. Ed. Ida Zatelli. Firenze: Centro Di, 1991.

Le Bibbie Atlantide: Il libro della Scritture tra monumentalità e rappresentazione. Abbazia di Montecassino, 11 luglio-11 ottobre 2000, Firenze, Biblioteca Laurenziana, settembre 2000-gennaio 2001. Ed. Marilena Maniaci e Giulia Orofino. Abbazia di Montecassino, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Università degli Studi di Cassino, 2000.*

Bibliografia degli scritti di Mirella Levi D'Ancona in occasione dell'Ottantesimo compleanno. Firenze: Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, 1999.

Bibliografia della Bibbia Amiatina (1990-1999). Ed. Valentina Longo, Sabina Magrini, Marco Palma. Roma: Viella, 2000.*

A Bibliography of Books on Judaism in the Benson Collection at St Deniol's Library. Compiled, Pamela Morris. Hawarden, Wales: St Deiniol's Library, n.d.

Bernhard Bischoff. Latin Paleography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Trans. Dáibhí O Cróinín, David Ganz. Cambridge: University Press, 1989.

Robert Black, Gabriella Pomaro. La Consolazione della Filosofia nel Medioevo e nel Rinascimento italiano/ Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy in Italian Medieval and Renaissance Education. Firenze: SISMEL Edizioni del Galluzzo, 2000. Biblioteche a Archivi 7.*

Giovanni Boccaccio. Illuminated Manuscripts: Boccaccio's Decameron. Paris, Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal, MS 5070. Ed. Edmond Pognon. Trans. J. Peter Tallon. Miller Graphics/ Crown Publishers, n.d.*

The Book of Kells. Reproductions from the Manuscript in Trinity College Dublin. Ed. Françoise Henry. New York: Alfred A. Knoepf, 1977.*

The Book of Kells. Ed. G.O. Simms. Dublin: Trinity College Library, 1961.

The Book of Kells: Proceedings of a Conference at Trinity College Dublin 6-9 September, 1992. Ed. Felicity O'Mahoney. Dublin: Trinity College Library, Scolar Press, 1994.

Beverly Boyd. Chaucer and the Medieval Book. San Marino; CA: The Huntington Library, 1973.

Leonard Boyle OP. Medieval Latin Paleography: A Bibliographical Introduction. Toronto: University Press, 1984.

Robert Branner. Manuscript Painting in Paris During the Reign of Saint Louis: A Study of Styles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.*

Peter Brieger, Millard Meiss, Charles S. Singleton. Illuminated Manuscripts of the Divine Comedy. Princeton: University Press, 1969. Bollingen Series LXXXI. 2 vols: I, Text, II, Plates.*

Brigittine Manuscripts. Notes in Binder.*

Brunetto Latini. Li Livres dou Tresor. Barcelona: M.Moleiro Editor, 2000. Boxed Facsimile and accompanying volume with essays: L.I. Kisseleva, I.P. Mokretsova, W.B. Clark, I.P. Mokretsova, G.Z. Bykova, V.N. Kireyeva. 2 vols.*

François Bucher. The Pamplona Bibles. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970. Facsimile. 2 vols: I. Text, II. Facsimile.*

The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 50 (1963).

I Canzonieri della lirica italiana delle origine. Vol. III. Il Canzoniere Palatino, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, Banco Rari 217, ex Palatino 418. Ed. Lino Leonardi. Firenze: SISMEL Edizioni del Galluzzo, 2000. Facsimile.*

The Calendar of St Willibrord. From MS Paris Lat. 10837. A Facsimile, with Transcription, Introduction and Notes. Ed. H.A. Wilson. The Bradshaw Society, 1918; The Boydell Press, 1998.*

Michael Camille. Image on the Edge: The Margins of Medieval Art. London: Reaktion Books, 1992. See also his essay on the Christina of Markyate St Albans Psalter, in Medievalism and the Modern Temper, shelved: Benedictine, BETH.

Adriano Cappelli. Lexicon Abbreviaturarum: Dizionario di Abbreviature latine ed italiane. Milano: Ulrico Hoepli, 1985. 2 copies.

Enzo Carli. The Choir Book Miniatures for Siena Cathedral. Florence: Edizioni I.F.I., 1991. Catharina Lindgren, 2000.

Enzo Carli. Les Tablettes peintes de la Biccherna et de la Gabella de l'ancienne République de Sienne. Milano: Electa Editrice, 1951.

Annemarie Weyl Carr. Illuminated Manuscripts from the University of Michigan Library: The Byzantine East.

St Chad and the Lichfield Gospels. Lichfield: Lichfield Cathedral, 2000. Mrs Pat Bancroft, Lichfield, 2000.

Peter J. Chelkowski. Mirror of the Invisible World: Tales from the Khamseh of Nizami. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1975.*

Chaucer Ellesmere. Portfolio.

H.J. Chaytor. From Script to Print: An Introduction to Medieval Vernacular. New York: October House, 1967.

The Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri: Descriptions and Texts of Twelve Manuscripts on Papyrus of the Greek Bible. Ed. Frederic G. Kenyon. Fasciculus II. Gospels and Acts. Text, Fasciculus IV. Genesis. Text, Plates Pap. IV,V. London: Emery Walker Ltd, 1933-1936. 4 vols.*

The Chester Beatty Library. Michael Ryan, Charles Horton, Clare Pollard, Elaine Wright. Dublin: The Chester Beatty Library, 2001.*

The Christmas Story in Medieval and Renaissance Illuminated Manuscripts. Ed. Karl Kup. New York: Oxford University Press, 1956.

La civiltà del Libro e la stampa a Venezia. Testi sacri ebraici, cristiani, islamici dal Quattrocento al Settecento. Venezia: Libreria Sansoviniana, 27 maggio-29 luglio, 2000. Ed. Simonetta Pelusi.*

The Cloisters Apocalypse. An Early Fourteenth-Century Manuscript in Facsimile. Ed. Florens Deuchler, Jeffrey M. Hoffeld, Helmut Nickel. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1971. 2 vols, I. Facsimile, II. Commentaries.*

I colori del divino: Firenze, Biblioteca Riccardiana 20 febbraio-19 maggio 2001. Ed. Giovanna Lazzi. Firenze: Edizioni Polistampa, 2001.

La Commedia Dipinta: I concorsi Alinari e il Simbolismo in Toscana. Firenze: Alinari, 2002.*

Crónica Troyana. Ed. Pilar García Morencos. Madrid: Editorial Patrimonio Nacional, 1976.

I Danti Riccardiani: parole e figure. Ed. Giovanna Lazzi e Giancarlo Savino. Firenze: Edizioni Polistampa, 1996.

A Distinct Voice: Medieval Studies in honor of Leonard E. Boyle, OP. Ed. Jaqueline Brown and William P. Stoneman. Notre Dame: University Press, 1997.

Dante Poeta Cristiano. Firenze: Società Dante Alighieri e Edizioni Polistampa, 2001. Includes Maria Grazia Ciardi Dupré Dal Poggetto, "L'Inferno e la miniatura". Amalia Ciardi Dupré, Firenze, 2002.

Giles Dawson, Laetitia Kennedy-Skipton. Elizabethan Handwriting 1500-1650, A Manual. New York: W.W. Norton, 1966.

Christopher de Hamel. The History of Illuminated Manuscripts. Oxford: Phaidon, 1986.*

Claire Donovan. The de Brailes Hours: Shaping the Book of Hours in Thirteenth-Century Oxford. London: The British Library. Page proofs.

Drawings by Botticelli. Selected, Aldo Bertini. New York: Dover, 1968. The Great Masters of Drawing.*

Marc Drogin. Medieval Calligraphy, Its History and Technique. New York: Dover, 1980.*

Richard Eales and Richard Gameson. Vikings, Monks and the Millennium: Canterbury in about 1000 A.D. Two Millennium Lectures. Canterbury: Canterbury Archeological Society, 2000.

The Ellesmere Miniatures of the Canterbury Pilgrims. Ed. Theo Stemmler. Mannheim: University of Mannheim, 1977. Poetria Mediaevalis 2

EVA 2003 Florence: Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts. Ed. Vito Cappellini, James Hemsley and Gerd Stanke. Bologna: Pitagora Editrice, 2003.

EVA 2004 Florence: Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts. Ed. Vito Cappellini and James Hemsley. Bologna: Pitagora Editrice, 2004.

Exhibition of Italian Miniatures. 27 November 1978. London, Robert Douwma Ltd, 1978.

Facsimile of Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Digby 86. Introduction, Judith Tschann and M.B. Parkes. Oxford: Early English Text Society, 1996. EETS, SS 16. Manuscript Commonplace Book.

Flemish Illuminated Manuscripts 1475-1550. Ed. Maurits Smeyers and Jan Van der Stock. Ghent: Ludion Press, 1996.*

Jaroslav Folda. Crusader Illumination at Saint-Jean d'Acre, 1275-1291. Princeton: University Press, 1976.*

French Illuminations. Portfolio.

Richard Gameson. Saint Augustine of Canterbury. Canterbury: Dean and Chapter, 1997.*

The Gawain Poet. Pearl, Cleanness, Patience and Sir Gawain. Reproduced from MS. Cotton Nero A.X. Oxford: Early English Text Society, 1923, 1971. Early English Text Society, 162.*

Giovanni Rucellai ed il suo zibaldone II. A Florentine Patrician and his Palace. Introduction, Nicolai Rubinstein, Essays bt F.W. Kent, Alessandro Perosa, Brenda Preyer, Piero Sanpaolesi, Roberto Salvani. London: The Warburg Institute, 1981.*

Michael Gorman. The Manuscript Traditions of the Works of St Augustine. Firenze: SISMEL, Edizioni del Galluzzo, 2001.*

Handschriften aus Südostasien: Ausstellung der Orientabteilung der Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz im Haus am Lützowplatz, Berlin-Tiergarten, Lützowplatz 9, vom 8. Januar bis 13 Februar 1977.

Robert Hellenga. The Sixteen Pleasures. New York: Dell, 1995. Autograph.

Herrad of Hohenbourg. Hortus Deliciarum. Ed. Rosalie Green, Michael Evans, Christine Bischoff, Michael Curschmann. London: The Warburg Institute, 1979. 2 vols, Commentary, Plates.

Hill Monastic Library Project. Julian G. Plante. Progress Report VIII: Spain, Ethiopia, Malta, Austria (Revisited), 1974-1980. William F. Lanahan. IX. Germany and Portugal, June 1979-June 1980. Collegeville, MN: Hill Monastic Library, 1980.

Arthur M. Hind. An Introduction to a History of Woodcut. London: Constable, 1935; reprint, New York: Dover Publications, 1963. 2 vols.

Sandra Hindman and James Douglas Farquhar. Pen to Press: Illustrated Manuscripts and Printed Books in the First Century of Printing. University of Maryland, Johns Hopkins University, 1977.

The Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux, Queen of France. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1972.  Quasi-facsimile.

Incipit. Rivista di Calligrafia. Ed. Kathryn Shank Frate.

Insular Illuminations. Portfolio.

Italian Illuminations. Portfolio.

Irish Illuminated Manuscripts of the Early Christian Period. Introduction, James Johnson Sweeney. New York: UNESCO-Mentor, 1965.

Donald Jackson. La scrittura nei secoli. Trans. Linda Bertelli. Nsrdini Editore, 1988.

Charles Johnson and Hilary Jenkinson. English Court Hand A.D. 1066 to 1500, Illustrated Chiefly from the Public Records. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1915. 2 vols, Part I: Text, Part II: Plates.*

Selma Jónsdóttir. Illumination in a Manuscript of Stjórn. Reykjavik: Almenna bokafelagið, 1971.*

N.R. Ker. Books, Collectors and Libraries: Studies in the Medieval Heritage. London: Hambledon Press, 1985.

King René's Book of Love (Le Cueur d'Amours Espris), The National Library, Vienna. Ed, F. Unterkirchner. New York: Braziller, 1975.*

Ellen Kosmer. "Master Honoré: A Reconsideration of the Documents". In Gesta, International Center of Medieval Art 14 (1875), 63-68.*

Jónas Kristjánsson. Icelandic Manuscripts: Sagas, History and Art. Trans. Jeffrey Cosser. Reykjavik: The Icelandic Literary Society, 1996.*

Jeanne E. Krochalis and Jean F. Preston. Teachers' Guide to Finding Western Medieval Manuscripts in North American Collections. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1988.

The Latin Manuscript Book: An Exhibition held on the Occasion of the Seminars in Latin Paleography Sponsored by the Division of the Humanities of the University of Chicago and the Medieval Academy of America, Summer 1973, Selected from the Collections of the University of Chicago Library. The Joseph Regenstein Library, July through September, 1973. Chicago: University of Chicago Library, 1973.

Mirella Levi D'Ancona. The Illuminators and Illuminations of the Choir Books from Santa Maria degli Angeli and Santa Maria Nuova in Florence. Florence: Centro Di, 1993. Vol. I. Alessandra Marchi, Firenze, 2001.

Mirella Levi D'Ancona. The Reconstructed "Diurno Domenicale" from Santa Maria degli Angeli in Florence. Florence: Centro Di, 1993. Vol. II.  Alessandra Marchi, Firenze, 2001.

Libri nell'arte. Firenze: Scuola Fiorentina del Libro "Bernardo Cennini", n.d.*

Rosamond McKitterick. The Carolingians and the Written Word. Cambridge: University Press, 1989.

Margaret Manion. The Wharncliffe Hours. Sydney: The Australian Academy of the Humanities, Sydney University Press, 1972. Art Monograph 1. Ursula Betka, Sydney, 2003.

Richard Marks and Nigel Morgan. The Golden Age of English Manuscript Painting 1200-1500. London: Chatto and Windus, 1981.*

I Manoscritti datati della Biblioteca Riccardiana di Firenze. Ed. Teresa De Robertis and Rosanna Miriello. Firenze: SISMEL Edizioni del Galluzzo, 1997. Vol. I, MS 1-1000. Vol. II. 1001-1400. Biblioteche e Archivi 2,3.*

Maria Paola Masini. La Miniatura, tecnica e materiali. Soprintendenza Speciale per il Polo Museale Fiorentino Sezione Didattica. Livorno: Sillabe, 2003. ADA, Firenze, 2003.

Medieval Manuscripts in the Norlin Library: A Summary Catalogue. Compiled, Julia Boffey, A.S.G. Edwards. Fairview, NC: Pegasus Press, 2002. Includes Otto F. Ege Portfolio of Manuscript Leaves.

Medieval Scribes, Manuscripts and Libraries: Essays Presented to N.R. Ker. Ed. M.B. Parkes and Andrew G. Watson. London: Scolar Press, 1978.

Medieval Studies: An Introduction. Latin Paleography, Diplomatics, Numismatics, Prosopography, Computer-Assisted Analysis of the Statistical Documents of Medieval History, Medieval Chronology: Theory and Practice, Medieval English Literature, Latin Philosophies in the Middle Ages, Tradition and Innovation in Medieval Art, Medieval Music in Perspective. Ed. James M. Powell. Syracuse: University Press, 1976.

The Medieval Woman: An Illuminated Book of Postcards. Ed. Sally Fox. Boston: Little,Brown and Company, 1991.

Millard Meiss. French Painting in the time of Jean de Berry: The Limbourgs and their Contemporaries. New York: George Brazillier, The Pierpont Morgan Library, 1974. 2 vols, Text, Plates.*

Bernard Meehan. The Book of Kells: An Illustrated Introduction to the Manuscript in Trinity College Dublin. London: Thames and Hudson, 2000. Bernard Meehan, Dublin, 2001.

Bruce Metzger. Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Paleography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.*

M.Moleiro. Brochures of Facsimile Editions. Portfolio.*

Antonio Natali. La Bibbia in bottega: Le scritture, l'antico, l'occasione. Firenze: Centro Di, 1991. Epigrammi 2.

J. Brody Neuenschwander. Order, Variety and Measure: The Creation of the Medieval Manuscripts. The Exhibition Gallery, Princeton University Library, 24 April through 4 October 1981.

Erwin Panofsky. The Life and Art of Albrecht Dürer. Princeton: University Press, 1954.

Matthew Paris. The Illustrated Chronicles: Observations of Thirteenth-Century Life. Ed. Richard Vaughan. Cambridge: Corpus Christi College/ Alan Sutton, 1993.*

M.B. Parkes. Scribes, Scripts and Readers: Studies in the Communication, Presentation and Dissemination of Medieval Texts. London: Hambledon Press, 1991.

Persian Miniatures from Ancient Manuscripts. Introduction, Basil Gray. New York: Mentor-UNESCO, 1962.

Gaston Phoebus. Illuminated Manuscripts: Medieval Hunting Scenes. Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, MS français 616.  Ed. Gabriel Bise, Trans. J. Peter Tallon. Miller Graphics, n.d.*

Emma Pirani. Gothic Illuminated Manuscripts. London: Hamlyn, 1970.

Piers Plowman. A Facsimile of Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS Douce 104. Ed. Derek Pearsall and Kathleen Scott. Cambridge: Brewer, 1992. Illuminations in colour.

Phillip J. Pirages. Catalogue 46

Jean Porcher. "French Gothic Illuminations". Pp. 72-81

Jan Potocki. Manoscritto trovato a Saragozza. Trans. Anna Devoto. Milano: Adelphi Edizioni, 1965.

The Princeton University Library Chronicle 38 (1977), Robert H. Taylor Collection. Ed. Robert J. Wickenheiser. Includes John V. Fleming, "Medieval Manuscripts in the Taylor Library", 107-119.

Jean Preston and Laetitia Yeandle. English Handwriting 1400-1650. An Introductory Manual. Binghamton: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1992.*

Les problèmes posés par l'édition critique des textes anciens et médiévaux. Ed. Jacqueline Hamesse. Louvain-la-Neuve: Université Catholique de Louvain, 1992. Includes C. Luna, "Problemi di reportatio: Goffredo di Fontaines", pp. 237-290. See Marguerite Porete, BETH§.

Bernard Quaritch Ltd. Bookhands of the Middle Ages. London: Bernard Quaritch Ltd, 1984. 2 copies.

RA 17 (1987). Magazine for the Friends of the Royal Academy. Article on Age of Chivalry, "A Glorious Pageant", medieval manuscripts.*

Reading from the Margins: Textual Studies, Chaucer, and Medieval Literature. Ed. Seth Lerer. San Marino, CA: Huntington Library, 1996.

Rivista di Storia della Miniatura 1-2 (1996-1997), Atti del IV Congresso di Storia della Miniatura "Il codice miniato laico: rapporto tra testo e immagine", Cortono, Sala dei Convegni di Sant'Agostino, 12-14 novembre, 1992. Firenze: Centro Di, 1997.*

Alan Robinson. Sense Tailored to Size in the New Testament. South Brent: Syon Abbey, 1989.*

Beryl Rowland. Animals with Human Faces: A Guide to Animal Symbolism. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1973.

Paola Semoli. Codici miniati camoldolesi nella Biblioteca Comunale "Rilliana" di Poppi e nella Biblioteca della Città di Arezzo. Poppi: Edizioni delle Biblioteca Comunale Rilliana, 1986. Quaderni della Rilliana 2. Judy e Sandro Basso, 2002.

Colette Sirat. Hebrew Manuscripts of the Middle Ages. Ed. and trans. Nicholas De Lange. Cambridge: University Press, 2002. Ida Zatelli, 2003.

Patrizia Stoppacci e Maria Cristina Parigi. Libros Habere: Manoscritti francescani in Casentino. 1 aprile-15 luglio 1999, Castello dei Conti Guidi di Poppi. Firenze: Edizioni Polistampa, 1999. Quaderni della Rilliana 21. Judy e Sandro Basso, 2002.

Stephen H.A. Shepherd. The Ashmole Sir Ferumbras: Translation in Holograph. From The Medieval Translator. Cambridge: Brewer. 1989.

I Tesori della Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze. Firenze: Nardini Editore, 1989. Le Grande Biblioteche d'Italia.*

Marcel Thomas. The Golden Age: Manuscript Painting at the time of Jean, Duke of Berry. New York: George Braziller, 1979.

S. Harrison Thomson. Latin Bookhands of the Later Middle Ages, 1100-1500. Cambridge: University Press, 1969.*

James Thorpe. A Noble Heritage: The Ellesmere Manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. San Marino, CA: The Huntington Library, 1972.

La Torre di Boezio. Pavia: Torchio de'Ricci, 1983. 35/530 numbered copies.*

Treasures of the Library: Trinity College, Dublin. Ed. Peter Fox. Dublin: Trinity College Library with the Royal Irish Academy, 1986. Bernard Meehan, Dublin, 2003.

Les très riches heures du Duc de Berry. Paris: Les Editions Nomis, n.d.

Tristan and Isolde, Vienna, National Library MS 2537. Illuminated by the Master of Bedford, from the Library of the Duc de Berry. Ed. Dagmar Thoss, Gabriel Bise. Miller Graphics/ Crown Publishing.*

Turfanforschung. Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2002.

Un clic tra arte e vita. Magazine photo essay on Islamic miniatures matched with contemporary photographs.*

Vente Ulrico Hoepli. Zurich. Two catalogues, one with Brunetto Latino, Il Tesoro, Trevisio, 1474. 27-28 Nov. 1930, 21-22 Mai 1931.*

Kurt Wetzmann. Illustrations in Roll and Codex: A Study of the Origin and Method of Text Illustration. Princeton: University Press, 1947/1970.

Kurt Weitzmann. Late Antique and Early Christian Book Illuminations. New York: George Braziller, 1977.*

John Williams. Early Spanish Manuscript Illumination. New York: George Braziller, 1977.*


Books I would like this library to possess:

Carruthers, Mary. The Book of Memory: A Study of Meaning in Medieval Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. [This book of importance to a study not only of medieval manuscripts themselves, but also as the organizing principle we have borrowed from them for the Umilta Website, in particular the alternating use of red and blue as a memory system.]

Illich, Ivan. In the Vineyard of the Text: A Commentary to Hugh's Didascalicon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. Ivan Illich visited this library.

Stock, Brian. Implications of Literacy: Written Language and Models of Interpretation in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries. Princeton: University Press, 1983.


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