AT VADSTENA, 1397                          .  .  .  .  .


To see entire Johannes Johannis Kalmarnensis manuscript of Birgitta's Falkenberg Revelationes: http://laurentius.lub.lu.se/

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uried amidst account books for the Paradiso Brigittine monastery which are now housed in the Florentine State Archives is a simple but important document, testifying to the internationalism of the Brigittine movement and the importance of St Birgitta of Sweden throughout Europe/Archivio di Stato di Firenze, Monastero di Santa Brigida detto del Paradiso 79./.

The document in question was written at Vadstena in 1397; it gives the canonization bull concerning Saint Birgitta and the Saint Peter in Chains indulgence granted to Vadstena; its scribe is Johannes Johannis of Kalmar in Sweden who became a monk deacon in 1404, who was to travel to Reval in Estonia in 1407 to aid in establishing the monastery there of Mariendal, and to London in England in 1415-1416 to aid in establishing Syon Abbey, and then to Låland in Denmark in 1417 to assist in establishing Maribo /Revelationes S. Birgittae e Codice Membr. fol. 21 Bibl. Universitatis Lundensis ('Cod. Falkenberg'), ed. Elias Wessen (Hafniae: Einar Munksgaard, 1952(, p. XLV, citing Diarium Vadstenense, 29/3 1446; Liber Privilegiorum Monasterii Vadstenensi e Codice Archivi Reg. Holm A19 (olim A23) (Hafniae: Einar Munksgaard, 1950), P. XLI, XLII; British Library, Add. 22,285, Syon Martylogy, fol. 14v; Add. 24,062, fol. 150, being a letter of state concerning King Henry IV's desire to establish a Brigittine house at St Richard's Church, prior to that of Syon Abbey; Knut B. Westman, Birgitta-Studien (Uppsala: Akademiska Boktryckeriet, Edv. Berling, 1911), p. 267; John Rory Fletcher, The Story of the English Brigittines of Syon Abbey (South Brent, Devon: Syon Abbey, 1933), pp. 21-22; Edmund Colledge, 'Epistola solitarii ad reges: Alphonse of Pecha as Organizer of Birgittine and Urbanist Propaganda', Mediaeval Studies 18 (1956), p. 46; Monica Hedlund, 'Katillus Thorberni: A Syon Pioneer and His Books', Birgittiana 1 (1996), 67-87, esp. 74-75./ .

Around the time of this document's writing, in 1392-1397, monasteries were being started in Florence, the Paradiso /Giovanni Da Prato, Il Paradiso degli Alberti, 1389, ed. Alessandro Wesselofsky (Bologna: Romagnoli, 1867), Scelta di Curiosita Letterarie Inedite or Raro dal secolo XIII al XVII, 86, 4 vols, I.195-196, Boniface IX, 26 January 1392, conceding foundation of Paradiso./, and Gdansk, that of Marienbrunn, Eric Gudhmundi from Vadstena and Lucas Jacobi of Spain from Paradiso being dispatched to the later, 8 April 1397, and Henry IV of England, when he was Henry, Earl of Derby, having visited Gdansk, August 1390 and September 1392, when Marienbrunn was being founded /Tore Nyberg, Klasztor Brygidek w Gdasku i jego najwczesniejsze kontakty z krajami Skanynawskimi na przelomie XIV i XV wieku. The Brigittine Abbey of Gdansk and its Earliest Contacts with Scandinavian Countires in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, Zapiski Historycnze 27 (1962), 530-77; also cited, M.B. Tait, 'The Brigittine Monastery of Syon (Middlesex) with Special Reference to its Monastic Usage', Phil Thesis, Oxford, 1975, p. 83./ .

Johannes Johannis Kalmarnesis is also the scribe of major Brigittine manuscripts of the Revelationes, writing these between 1410-1415, and further texts /Westman, p. 267, notes colophon, Lund University 21, fol. 314v: 'Finito libro sit laus et gloria Christo. Conscriptus per manus fratris Johannes Johannis Kalmarnensis. Orate pro eo'. Johannes Johannis manuscripts are Lund University 21, Codex Falkenberg, written before 1415, 360 folios, perhaps Lund University 20, Codex Berghmanianus, 165 folios, Stockholm, Codex Oxenstierna, Vitae Patrum section, fols. 164-235 (Birgitta had urged Vadstena brothers to use Vitae Patrum, Rev. Extrav. 23); Liber Privilegiorum , Arch. Reg. Holm. A19, fols. 20-63; ASF Monasterio di Santa Brigida detto del Paradosio 79. Edmund Colledge notes, p. 46, that Johannes Johannis spoke of the Revelationes as equivalent to the Bible./ .

Johannes Johannis Kalmarnensis died in 1446, having been born in 1363. He was professed as monk and deacon of Vadstena Abbey in 1405 /Acta Sanctorum , October 4, Vol. 50, p. 376, making use of the Diarium Vadstenense ./. Thus the 1397 Paradiso document is the earliest reference to Johannes Johannis Kalmarnensis, placing him at Vadstena in a scribal, notarial capacity and already ordained as a priest. This is after the deaths of St Birgitta's son, Birger, and her daughter, St Catherine. He would then have been thirty-four, with forty-nine more years of intensive and important service to the Brigittines before his death at eighty-three.

Clearly the document was written when the Paradiso Monastery in Florence, first proposed in 1392, was finally founded /Paradiso's Foundation was initially opposed by the Bishop of Florence who disapproved of double monasteries, but on 3 December 1397, the Brigittines won the right from the Florentine Republic to establish the Paradiso. It is possible that this document played a part in that political decision./. It was likely acquired by that monastery in order to validate St Birgitta's canonization and the indulgences granted to her Order of Saint Saviour and to St Birgitta's monasteries /A good discussion of these indulgences occurs in British Library, Harleian 2321, giving a sermon on the Pardon of Syon, noting that it is that of Saint Peter in Chains and of St Francis' Portiuncula, continuing by discussing St Birgitta's pilgrimages to the Stations of Rome and Jerusalem, and noting the Pardon of Jerusalem likewise earned by it, fols. 17v-63./. With its writer's associations with Sweden and England, Estonia and Poland, Italy and Denmark, it testifies to the internationalism of the Brigittine movement.

In the Brigittine story, trammelled about in legal, ecclesiastical, male documents, scattered all over Europe, come sudden flashes of pictures concerning women, women in childbirth, invalid nuns, the Virgin holding the Book, the saint herself who prays so often her knees become as hard as those of a camel. These are flesh and blood people enduring poverty and disease - and around them have grown beautiful written stories, embedded in the amber of a saint's canonization /André Vauchez, La Sainteté en Occident aux derniers siècles du Moyen Age; d'après les procés de canonisation et les documents hagiographiques (Rome: Ecole Française de Rome, Palais Farnese, 1981)./.

Our principal document, in which so many of these stories can be found and which has for so long been forgotten amidst account books, was previously copied out in December 1452, by Bertholdus Romanus, Confessor General of Paradiso, likely from this Vadstena/Paradiso document: 'Inveni, inquit, sed locum, ubi invenit, non exprimit, in antiquo libro' ['"I found it", he said, but the place where he found it, in an old book, he did not say']. An Altomünster monk, Jacobus Scheck, wrote that remark on finding the copy at Marien Boom, copying it out in turn there from whence it came into the pages of the Acta Sanctorum /ASS, Oct 4, 50.373./. It was also published in the magnificent Lübeck: Ghotan, 1492 edition of St Birgitta's Life and Revelationes.

This essay transcribes the original and autograph version, which is written as a small pamphlet book on twelve folio pages, measuring 222 x 160 millimeters, its written surface, 132 x 110 millimeters, using brown ink on parchment with prickings, tied together with the original hemp cord, the parchment having the typical Vadstena suede-like finish, the text having three large initial capitals ornamented in Chancery style, several marginal notations, and concluding with Johannes Johannis Kalmarnensis' notarial sign. True to the scribes of his day he uses c rather than t, for example eciam rather than etiam, and e rather than ae, for example sepe rather than saepe.

Bishop Hemming of Turku and St Birgitta of Sweden, Urdialu, Finland


The manuscript opens with the affirmation that three Swedish ecclesiasts, Henry, Archbishop of Uppsala, Bishops Canute of Linköping /Revelationes, ed. Wessen, p. XLV, notes Diarium Vadstenense , 29/5 1404: 'Ipso die Corporis Christi . . . ingressus est Dominus Johannes Johannis Calmarnensis, consecratus per Dominum Kanutem episcopum Lyncopensem, in statum dyaconorum'./, and Thordo of Strängnäs, have read the papal documents copied here and vouch for their authenticity on the basis of their diplomatic apparatus, such as seals and silk cords of the appropriate colours. The 1391 act of canonization, issued in the name of Boniface XI, speaks of the diversity of wonderworking saints, such as martyrs, doctors, confessors, hermits, virgins and widows, who help restore the human race after the fall of the first parents. Such a saint is the holy widow Birgitta, popularly known as Brigida, whom the celestial farmer has cultivated in the farthest northern limit of his garden to be a new vine to the Church. Daughter of Birger and Sigrid, both of Swedish royal blood, her birth has been presaged by visions. Birgitta had not spoken until she was three but then did so in complete sentences. Under parental pressure she married Ulf, a prince of Närke, when she was thirteen, he, eighteen. they remained virgins for a year. Later, in one of her many childbirths, Birgitta nearly died but an imperious woman clothed in white silk entered the room and helped her to a safe delivery without further pain. The couple went on pilgrimage to Compostela, Ulf then entering a monastery and dying there in 1344. Birgitta when on pilgrimage, visiting holy relics in Germany, France, Spain, Italy and the Holy Land. She lived in Rome upon leaving Sweden. She undertook various ascetic practices, knotting hemp cords around her body /The pamphlet in which these words occur is itself tied together with a hemp cord at its gathering./ , wearing patched clothing /Her patched cloak is still preserved as a relic, Aron Andersson and Anne Marie Franzen, Birgittareliker (Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell, 1975), pp. 18-29, 57, figs. 17-30; likewise the remaining scraps of her handwriting in Swedish, on Sienese paper, are sewn together like patchwork and preserved, Kungl. Biblioteket, A65./, fasting more than the Church required, dropping hot wax from a burning candle on her hands and feet so that the scars would remain, keeping bitter gentian in her mouth, and kneeling so much that her knees became as hard as a camel's. She would visit the Roman Stations in all weathers and every season. She would stand unknown amongst the beggars, exchanging clothes with them. When her husband had been alive she had fed the hungry at their table, washed the feet of the poor every Friday, and founded and restored hospitals. She visited the sick, washing and binding their sores without disgust. She founded and richly endowed a monastery at Vadstena for sixty nuns and twenty-five monks. She accepted pastoral direction patiently, bore without murmur the deaths of her husband and Charles, her son. In her seventieth year, prompted by a vision, she summoned her family and died a tranquil death, commending her soul to God. Her fame spread immediately throughout the city and the world. Many miracles occurred through her intercession. Agnes de Comtessa was cured of a very large congenital throat tumour by touching Birgitta's hand at the funeral; an invalid nun of St Lawrence in Panisperna, Francesca de Sabellis, was cured after sleeping right by the grill of the convent church where the body lay in state /The iron grill still exists at St Lawrence in Panisperna, though the Poor Clare nuns have since left that convent./; Elsebi Snara, after giving birth in great sorrow to a dead child, vowed to journey to Birgitta's shrine and give a wax image if her child were to revive, the baby immediately becoming warm and breathing /For such votive offerings, see Ronald C. Finucane, Miracles and Pilgrims: Popular Beliefs in Medieval England (London: Book Club Associates, 1977), pp. 95-96/. Birgitta has given hearing to the deaf, speech to the dumb, sight to the blind, straightened curved backs and rescued shipwrecked sailors. /Much of this wording - but in Italian - is repeated in Lapo Mazzei 's Letter to Francesco Datini./ On the basis of testimony by many, including Queen Margaret of Sweden, the Pope declares Birgitta to be a saint and establishes her feast day on the day of her death, July 23. Two grants of indulgence by Pope Urban VI follow, the first giving the St Peter in Chains indulgence to the monastery at Vadstena, established by Birgitta's daughter, Catherine, the second to all monasteries founded by this Order of Saint Saviour and St Birgitta, whose official Rule is that of St Augustine. Finally, Johannes Johannis (Jön Jönsson), priest of the Diocese of Linköping, Imperial notary, confirms with his autograph colophon the authenticity of this transcription, Vadstena, 10 June 1397.

This same scribe writes out this same Bull in the Liber privilegiorum, pp. 108-118.


ASF Monastero di Santa Brigida detto del Paradiso 79

[On cover, folio 1] Canonizacio Sancte Brigide et indulgentie Sancti Petri ad Vincula et omnium Indulgenciarum ordinis Sancti augustini. CCVIIII /This number, 209, written in a different hand than is the rest of the document and appears to indicate a file number at a later date./.

[Fol. 2] N/Ornamented chancery-style capital/overint universi quorum interest seu interesse poterit quemmodo libet in futurum. Nos henricum divina miseracione archiepiscopum upsalensem, Kanutum /who consecrated Johannes Johannis a Brigittine deacon, 1404/ , et Thordonem eadem gracia lincopensis, et strenginensis ecclesiarum episcopos, quasdam litteras apostolicas, utrique litteram canonizacionis Sancte byrgitte domini nostri, domini bonifacii Pape, noni cum vera bulla plumbea ipsius domini Pape, filoque canopeo more romane curie bullatam. Necnon bullas felicis recordacionis urbani Pape sexti Indulgenciarum ecclesie Sancti Petri ad vincula in roma. Ac eciam indulgenciarum et aliarum graciarum ordinis Sancti augustini heremitarum cum veris bullis plumbeis et cordis sericeis rubei croceique modo ut supra bullatas Monasterio Sanctarum marie virginis, et byrgitte in vazsteno concessarum, vidisse, tenuisse, et diligenter perlegisse, quarum tenor sequitur de verbo ad verbum in hac forma.

Bonifacius episcopus servus servorum dei. Venerabilis fratribus, patriarchis, arhiepiscopis, et episcopis. ac dilectis filiis Electis et patriarchalium metropolitanarum, et cathedralium ecclesiarum capitulis ubilibet constitutis. Salutem et apostolicam benediccionem. Ab origine mundi post primi parentis lapsum cum eamobrem universum genus humanum eterne morti teneretur obnoxium. Cunctipotens et misericors deus ex alto prospiciens ne in totum perderet hominem quem crearat. Sed sue divinitatis faceret esse participem. Cum primos parentes et spiramine Sancti spiritus afflatos prophetas adventus filii sui in carnem sub typicis enigmatibus. ac divinis revelacionibus nuncios premisisset eundem unicum filium suum ante secula genitum adveniente plenitudine temporis in uterum preelecte virginis matris, que imperscrutabili Sanci spiritus obumbracione angelo nunciante concepit, de proprio sinu transmisit, qui ex eadem virgine natus et progressus in tempus cepit facere et docere, omnibusque monstrare qualiter sacri [fol 1v] baptismatis fonte renatis, de eterna morte via pateret ad vitam, ed coadunatis discipulis, ne quis fidelis huius transitorie et fugacis vite molestias vel tedia, seu temporalis acerbe necis penas pro eterne adepcionem vite perhorreret, sese hostiam immaculatam consumato debito cursu in ara crucis morte cruenta obtulit deo patri, et militantem ecclesiam fuso precioso sanguine fundavit, consecravit, et eternaliter stabilivit. Tandem vero de mundo transiturus ad patrem. Principi apostolorum Petro celesti clavigero in suam, suorumque successorum summorum pontificum personas collatis clavibus, ligandi videlicet et solvendi tondita potestate, supremum pontificium specialem curam sui gregis et regimen universale commisit. Pollicitus nichilominus ecclesiam in eternum se non deserturum eandem. Ad cuius uberem utilitatem divisiones graciarum per Spiritum sanctum tribuit suis fidelibus. Nam secundum apostolum unicuique datur manifestacio spiritus ad utilitatem, alii quidem per spiritum datur sermo sapientie alii sermo scientie seundum eundem spiritum, alii fides in eodem spiritu. Alii gracia santitatum in uno spiritu alii operacio virtutum, alii prophecia, alii discrecio spiritum, alii genera linguarum, alii interpretacio sermonum. Hec autem omnia operature unus atque idem spiritus singulis dividens prout vult. Quamque militantem eclesiam Pater luminum sustulit in eodeam Spiritu sancto structura mirabili preciosorum lapidum mira varietate decoram, ipso summo angulari lapide christo jhesu quos elegit ante mundi constitucionem conformes fieri hymaginis eiusdem filii, ut sit ipse primogenitus in multis fratribus, in quo eos gratificavit donans carismata meliora, qui suo exemplo via ostenderent, excellenciorem. Hinc igitur apostoli sancti prodiere per universum [fol. 2] orbem genus humanum quo sub peccati Iugo tenebatur ad vitam et salutem excitantes, et cum firmissima constancia predicantes verbum dei, ut in omnem terram exiret sonus eorum. Et in fines orbis terre verba eorum. Splendidi quoque martires fidei loricam induti, et inconcusse stabilitatis balteo succinti laverunt stolas suas in sanguine Innocentis agni et initiati candidato exercitu Christum Jhesum ad structuram superne Ierusalem, hoc est triumphantis ecclesie cum gloriosa victoria plamas gestantes in manibus sese vivos lapides addiderunt exemplum venerabilie et eternam dignamque memoriam militanti ecclesie relinquentes. Progressi sunt et doctores lucidissimi, qui pseudo christianis falsisque prophetis supersticiosas et vanas opiniones in vera fide catholica adducere ipsamque fidem subvertere satagentibus se opponentes, talium confutatis erroribus miro eloquio et solidis ac rectis sentensiis operante Sancto spiritu ipsam fidem et militantem ecclesiam illustrarunt, quibus eadem ecclesia communita progreditur quasi aurora consurgens pulcra ut luna, electa ut sol, terribilis ut castrorum acies ordinata. Sequuntur et limpidi confessores ornati gemmis, et virtutibus corruscantes domino rationem de talentis creditis reposcenti cum se assidua et vigili sanctarum operationum exercuerint mercatura utpote fidelies et boni servi multiplicitem de suis laboribus fructum afferunt et domini reponunt in archam. Eciam anachorite et solitudinis, ac heremi sectatores blandientis et capciosi sed venenosi mundi vana specatcula fugientes ut securir ad patriam pervenirent latibula pecierunt, at, antris abditi parvo et rudi victu scaturientis aque et levi potu carnem propriam macerantes, et sathane stimulos reprimentes paliastro vel tegmine hirto amicti, et ut plurimum nudis [fol. 2v] pedibus et squalida humo aut stramineo ucubili fessa membra sompno refoventes in sacra contemplacione et superne maiestatis laude vacantes demum ex hac lacrimarum valle et miseriarum acervo ad dei provincian evocati immarcessibilibus deliciis pociuntur Assunt et virgines nitide mundo corpore et corde sincero mentem sanctam spontaneam, et oleum secum suis deferentes in vasis venienti sponso obviam exeunt, eique deonsantur qui est pre filiis hominum speciosus. Devote autem et continentes vidue et alie sexus utriusque persone piis sanctisque operibus semper nitentes se ante dei tribunal cum plenis manipulis representant, et cum sanctis angelis canunt gloriam in altissimis deo et in terra pacem bone voluntatis hominibus deprecantur. Hec omnia profecto ille idem spiritus de quo supra operatur ministerio multiformiter admirando. Et secundum sanctam promissionem christ ihesus hanc vineam suam militantem ecclesiam post eius admirabilem ascensionem talibus cultoribus et cultricibus usque in diem hodiernum visitavit, fovit, defensavit, firmavit, Iuvit et auxit, et per sui graciam sic in futurum faciet temporibus successivis. Novissimis vero diebus ut eciam ab aquilone aliquid boni esset ille celestis agricola eandem vineam suo de more visitans mulierem fortem procul et de ultimis finisbus suum secum precium deferentem ad huiusmodi vinee culturam adduxit in esse beatam scilicet viduam Byrgittam, quam vulgare Brigidam appelant, tam sacro superius descripto cetui merito sociandam seu verius sociatam. Cuius propter quod presentem operam nobis damus, ut originem, vitam, mores, et merita, necnon miracula que in premium sanctitatis eius deus benedictus mundo monstrare dignatus est. Ne de tam celebri muliere etas presens remaneat ignara, et surda, [fol. 3] posteritas famam ingratam accusere vel protendere possit summotenus percurramus, de multis pauca ad modum eaque non pretereunda silencio excerpsimus. Vestreque caritati harum serie volumus intimari. Hec nemppe mulier gloriosa ex patre Byrgero, et matre sigrida [All early documents name her so, but 'Ingeborg' is the form modern scholars use. See ASS , Oct 4, 50.377-378; Magnus O. Celsius, Monasterium Sko in Uplandia (Stockholm: Wernerianis, 1728), p. 14] coniugibus de nobilissima regia stirpe catholicorum swecie regum procedentibus, nec minus fice ortodoxa et animi constancia ac virtutibus, quam nobilitate claris duxit originem. Quequidem mater dum eam gestaret in utero maris in quodam sinu, passa naufragium, cum multos promiscui sexus in eodeam naufragio procella absorbuisset, sana pervenit ad litus, et nocte sequenti in visione astitit sibi persona, admirando vestitu refulgens, et ne vidue tam benerande sine pronuncio foret adventus, dixit, salvata es propter bonum quod habes in utero, ideo nutri illud cum caritate dei que tibi a deo donatum est. Cumque puella Byrgitta de genitricis alvo in mundum recenter fuisset educata, sacerdos parrochialis in ecclesia propinqua approbate vite et etatis perfecte dum nocte oracioni vacaret, nubem lucidam et in medio nubis virginem sedentem vidit, librum habentem in manu , sibique dicentem, Nata es Bygero quedam filia cuius vox per mundum admirabilis audietur. Nata ergo puella usque ad finem Trienni quasi elinguis visa est. Sed mox contra naturalem decursum non babluciendo infancium more fari gestiensium que audierint, sed completa et formata verba de auditis per eam loquebatur, et visis. Procedens vero in annis [in margin, eius vita] puericiam mira devociam transegit, oracionibus videlicet ac jeiuniis et alias nuymquam a bonis operibus ociosa. Tandam licet in statu virginali servire domino totis desideriis affectaret, tamen per parentes compulsa quondam Ulfoni de Ulfasoni principi Nericie nobilis [fol. 3v] simo quippe et christianissimo juveni in matrimonium desponsatur. Et cum insimul convenire deberent quaquam ydonei essent ad viriles amplexus, maritus videlicet in decimo octavo et spona in tercio decimo anno constituti, communi tamen voluntate, thobiam Iuniorem, et sarram raguelis imitati, annum continuum ut ubera a concubitu abstinuerunt deum humiliter deprecantes, ut si coniugi foret expediens in commistione non peccarent, et deus illis talem prolem concederet que ad servicium eius esset. Simul post ea convenerunt in rimore domini ac tremore, non libidini sed posteritati vacantes. Cum interim devota mulier, ne jejunia nec orationes nec alia pia et solita opera preteriret. Et cum semper beate virgini precipue devota foret, ac tempore precedente pene party perclitaretur, et obstetrices, ac mulieres astantes de vita illius desperarent, visa est quedam imperiosa sed icognita mulier albis syriceis induta vestibus intrare cubile, et assistere strato, et singula jacentis membra pertractare, mox cum talis mulier disparuisset, eadem puerpera sine dolora partu integro exonerata remansit. Et c um eciam dicti iugales adhuc essent iuvenes et recentes, maritus felicies uxoris sanctis monicionibus persuasus/ Cor enim viri spoliis non indigens confisum in ea reddidit ei bonum et non malum omnibus diebus vite sue, ispaque mulier indixerunt sibi sponte invicem et perpetuam continenciam servaverunt, et nichilominus coniuges devoci, in dei timore, et amore proximi semper fervenciores limina beati Jacobi apostoli in compostella, communi voto peregre visitarun. Et ad propria reversi cum deliberassent ut liberius devocioni vacare possent, pro sexus diversitate, diversa ingredi monasteria dictus princeps in tali deliberacione quievit in domino. Sancta autem [fol. 4] vidua que ab ineuntis etatis principio deo dedicata fuerat, jeiuniis et oracionibus indefesse vacarat soluto coniugo et sui iuris effecta, quasi navis insticoris de longe portans panem suum a spiritu sancto premonita, egrediens de terra et cognacione sua, ad almani urbem ac hiersolimam deinde perrexit, et loca singula in quibus redemptor noster ihesus christus annunciatus, natus, educatus, baptizatus, conversatus, mirabilia operatus, illusus, crucifixus, et sepultus fuit, et ad celos ascendit, insigni devocione et venerabunda conspexit. Ad urbem quoque regressa cum antea sive in sua patria et partibus circumstantibus, sive in germania, sive in galiis sive in hispania, sive in Italia, sive in aliis cismarinis aut ultramarinis partibus sanctorum ac sanctarum corpora, seu memorande relique quiescerent pauca admodum, absque personali visitacione dicte sancte vidue fuissent pretermissa, in eadem urbe reliqum vite peregit. Sed post mariti mortem, ob reverenciam sancta trinitatis ad nudam carnmem quandam cordam de canape cum plerisque nodis detulit stricte ligatam. Et similiter circa singulas tibias subtus genua, singulas cordas similiter connodatus, eciam tempore infirmitatis, nec pannis lineis preterquem in capite usa, vestes hispidas circa carnem, superius vero non secundam persone condicionem, sed multum humilies et abiectas. Et non solum eas quas sancta mater jubet ecclesia vigilias seu jeiunia observabat, sed alia multa superaddebat, ut eciam ultra ecclesie mandatum quater in ebdomada jeiunaret, et similiter quater in ebdomada coniuge nondum vita functo et post obitum eius continue usque ad paucos annos ante suum felicem transitum solitis pannis induta super tapeto absque paleis, culcitra vel similibus ad terram vel pavimentum posito, corpus aboracionibus, abstinenciis, ad di[fol. 4v]vino labore fessum tenui et brevi sompno recreabat. Singulis sextis feriis ob memoriam sacratissime passionis domini nostri ihesu christi, pane dumtaxat et aqua contenta jeiunium non omisit cum eciam multos alios dies ob diversorum sanctorum reverenciam simili abstinencia pertransiret. Et sive jeiunio abstineret, sive aliter discumberet cum sobriissima foret de mensa surgebat non saturata, sed refota. Eisdem quoque sextis feriis de candelis cereis accensis stillas candentes et ignitas eliquabat super nudam carnem, ita ut aduste cicatrices continue remanerent, et gencianam amarissimam herbam seu radicem eius retinebat in ore. Roma insuper degens, non rigorem frigorum, non estivos calores, non impediemtna vie lutose, non pluviarum aut nivium seu grandinum asperitates curans, staciones per ecclesiam ordinatas variasque alias sanctas ecclesias licet eques pro suis facultatibus ire potuisset, tamen supra extenuati corporis vires enitens, peditans visitabat quacumque die. Tot tamque longis genuflexionibus usa fuit ut genua eius vigerent in duriciem ut ita dixerimus camelorum. Admirabilis et spectate humilitatis extitit, ita ut nonnunqaum cum pauperibus peregrinis incognita simul sedens apud monasterium Sancti laurencii in panisperna de urbe ordinis Sancte clare elemosinam reciperet, et oscularetur cum graciarum actionem. Et frequenter propriis manibus, et ob dei reverenciam reparabat pauperum vestimenta. Tenacem obedienciam prelatis et suis superioribus et confessoribus observabat, adeo que absque saltem confessoris licencia pene oculos attollere non presumeret. Et superstite marito cum singulis sextis feriis confessa fuisset, post eius transitum veram confessionem semel saltem in die cum [fol. 5] magna contricione studuit iterare, tam amare levia sicut alii gravissima deplorans, et nichil de suis verbis, moribus, cogitacionibus et actibus preteriens indiscussum. Verbi dei predicacionibus quas viri probati facerent, assidua aderat et intenta. Singulis quoque diebus dominicis et solemnibus cum devocione et lacrimis sumpsit venerabile christi corporis sacramentum. Considerans semitas domus sue, ne panes comederet ociosa, manus suas apperuit inopibus, et palmas suas extendit ad pauperes, inexhauste enim caritatis officia erga egentes, infirmas, et abiectas personas ob dei reverenciam exercuit indefesse. Nam dum eciam adhuc maritus superesset die qualibet duodecim pauperes consuevit propria in domo cibare illis inserviens et necessaria ministrans. Et quintis feriis memor cene domini propris manibus lavit pedes eorum. De propria quoque facultate reparavit in partibus sue originis multa hospitalia desolata, et pauperes et infirmos ibi degentes pia, benigna, misericors et sedula ministratrix cum summa pietate visitavit, ulcera eorum absque horrore vel fastidio actretavit, lavit, circumligavit et fovit. In loco eciam de vazsteno lincopensis diocesis de suis facultatibus unum venerabile monasterium canonice construi fecit, pro sexaginta monialibus sub clausura viventibus, et vigintiquinque fratribus ordinis Sancti augustini Sancti salvatoris nuncupati, qui tam moniales quam fratres certas constituciones per ipsam beatam viduam editas, et post ea per sedem apostolicam approbatas observare tenentur, sufficienti dote nichilominus assignata. Admirabilis paciencia viguit in ea ut infirmitates propri corporis, iniurias illatas mariti, et caroli filii mortem et adversa reliqua toleravit pacienissime sine murmure, sine querela, sempter in cunctis [fol. 5v] cum humilitate summissa dominum benedicens, in fide semper constanciorum prestanciorum spe vera caritate arednciorum justiciam summe dilexit et equitatem. Stimulos carnis et vanas illecebras, pravitatem et arroganciam, pompam et inanem gloriam magnanimi curiositate contempsit. De singulari continencia et modestia sua satis est superius recitatum. Sed quis inveniretur illa prudentior cum optima discrecione ab etate primeva usque ad horam ultimam quantum sinebat humana fragilitas cuncta secernens non dixit bonum malum, neque malum bonum, nec posuit lucem tenebras nec tenebrar ispam lucem. Quibusquidem graciam sancti spirito promeruit, multis eorum cogitaciones et affectiones intimas et gesta secretissima propalare, et visiones ac revelaciones varias divere et audire ac spiritu prophetico multa predicere quorum nonnulla effectu completa fuere, prout hec et alia in eius revelacionum volumine plenissime describuntur. Quinta vero precendente die prenunciavit sue vite finem adesse. Et cum fuisset annum septuagesimum supergressa, adveniente. Iam termino prenunciato vocata familia, qua fieri oporteret edixit. Ac demum Byrgero filio et catherina filia tunc supersticibus accersitis, et de multis connonitis ut super omnia in dei timore, et amore proximi, ac sanctis perserverarent operibus ultima confessione debite facta, sumpto viatico, et extrema unctione delibuta, cum usque ad flatus emissionem sua memoria integra perdurasset dum missa coram ea celebraretur post adoratum corpus christi, oculis elevatis ad celum dicens In manus tuas domine commendo spiritum meum vocanti benemeritam animam reddidit creatori. Extimplo de transsitu huius vidue venerande magna fit fama per urbem, concurrit frequens popu[fol. 6]lus cum summa devocione ac reverencia sacrum videre coprus deum unanimiter glorificans et collaudans. Ad monasterium santi laurencii supradictum ubi se indicarat, funus in longe maiori populi frequencia defertur, et premunia multitudine usque ad biduum apte non potuit sepeliri, quod tamen cum eximia dei laude fuit humatum. Dum autem celebris hec vidua Neapoli degeret Nolanensis quedam mulier picciolella nomine que vilentum mali spiritius in humanam se himaginem transformantis paciebatur accubitum, cui nec forcium vigilie aut excubie obsistere potuerant, ad viduam sanctam accessit, eam super tali materia et expedienti remedio consultura. Mox vidua precellens et secreta mulieris pervidens quesivit a muliere an secum aliquid arte magica compilatum, vel quid tale defferet, cum illa respondisset que non, egregia vidua subiecit, quere in capillis seu tricis tuis et contrarium invenies. Confusa et recordata mulier que certum breve cum caracteribus et cantimine propris habebat in crinibus suum fuit errorem sponte fassa. In signis autem vidua iniunxit et suasit illi ut devote confitereter et veraciter peniteret, et communicaret ac eciam jeiunaret. Quod et fecit. Ac meritis et precibus memorate vidua numquam similem accubitum passa fuit. Cum autem spectabilis hec vidua de longa peregrinacione ad ortonam Theatum diocesis terram in quam beatissimi Thome apostoli reliquarum pars magna servatur vice secunda supervenisset fuerat enim antea longe per visionem sibi revelatum, que secunda vice fui adventus ad ipsam terram devotum eius desiderium impleretur, et dum sanctas reliquas devocione solita visitaret, idem apostolus devote vidue apparens dixit dabo tibi diu desideratum, et mox neimine tangente [fol. 6v] vel alias impellente de capsa reliquarum quoddam frustulum unius ossis dicti apostoli supate vidue expectantis prosilit ad manus, quod illa cum gaudio ac devocione recipiens summa veneracione servavit. Fuit quoque hec admirabilis vidua dum oracioni et contemplacioni vacaret per plerasque devotas personas elevata a terra per hominis mensuram vel circiter cum splendida et radiante facie sepe visa. Funus nondum erat traditum sepulture [margin, Mirac' ] cum mulier quedam agnes de contessa nomine in urbe commorans que a nativitate guttur habebat grossissimum ac deforme cum aliis venerandum concurrit ad funus, et cum propria zona manus sancte jacentis byrgitte cum devocione tangi fecisset zonam eandem simili devocione circumduxit ad collum et paulo post guttur detumuit, et ad conformitatem debitam divino [margin, aliud de sabell'] miraculo fuit redactum.  Verum francisca de sabellis dicti monasterii sancti laurencii monialis, que biennio debilitatem et adversam stomachi valitudinem passa, fere semper lecto ducubuerate infirma, et honorande vidue familiaris fuerat dum adhuc insepultum corpus intra claustrum servaretur cum gravi labore de lecto surrexit, tam longam infirmitatem paciens, et adiuta pervenit ad ferretrum et secus illud jacuit tota nocte, nec deum desiit cum devocione et instancia deprecari que meritis et precibus Vidue cuius corpus aderat, tam molesta, tamque diutina valitudine in tantum saltem alleviaretur, que cum reliquis monialibus divinis officiis interesse, et per claustrum cum expediret adiuta per neminem, ire posset, et mane facto repperit se circa proprii sanitatem corporis efficacius remedium quam deprecata fu[fol. 7] erat impetrasse. Verum ut deus benedictus huius dilecte vidue mundo magna merita demonstraret, contigit ut elssebi snara mulier dicte lincopensis diocesis cum infantulum mortuum [margin, mortuum suscitasi] peperisset summo dolore plena, ac tandem ad se reversa deum prece humili exoraret, que meritis vidue tantopere celebrande, infantulus vitam susciperet, et emisso voto quod cum infantulo si ad vitam veniret, et himagine cerea sepulcrum vidue sante visitaret, extimplo infantulus calescere et palpitare cepit, vitamque plene suscipit. Mulier vero plena devocione atque gaudio votum implevit emissum. Sed quid pluribus immoramur cum deus omnipotens huius alme vidue meritis, surdis aures apperuerit, mutis lingue officium solverit, tremulis paraliticis soliditatem prebuerit, curvis erectionem, contractis et invalidis liberorum beneficium gradiendi, cecis visum, mulierbius partu periclitantibus liberacionem, morbis alias incurabilis sanitatem. Naufragos et aquis vehementibus laborantes perduxerit salutis ad portum. Et si ea que deus benedictus vidue sepedicte meritis tam illa superstite quam post eius resoluciones felicem mirabilia preca et supra vires nature fuit operatus, nec desinit operari, vellemus per singula recensere. Nos aliis diversis implicos longa valde in tali recitacione prolixitas detineret, possunt tamen fideles avidi talia gesta pernoscere, librorum in quo fideliter annotantur perquirere curiose. Vota autem apud monasterium in vazsteno supradictum, ad quod venerabile corpus huius benedicte vidue translatum fuit, persoluta, et apposite himagines ac statue magnum testimonium perhibent veritati. Et quoniam per sancti spiritus operacionem hec vidua pervigil per excellencia merita in die patris gloria collocata, militantem prope modum illustrat ecclesiam. [fol. 7v] Nostque gustamus et videmus quia bona fuit et est negociacio eius, et propterea in nocte supernientis temporalis mortis eius virtutem et meritorum lucerna non debet extingui, est enim non sub modio sed super candelabrum postia, et per diem universam domum inextinguibile lumen affert quin pocius filii sancte matris ecclesie surgant et beatissimam predicent eique dent de fructu manuum suarum, laudentque eam in portis interioris ecclesie opera eius. Nos qui pro iniuncto ministerii pastoralis officio sumus sapientibus et insipientibus debitores, per ea que tam de felicis recordacionis Gregorii xi, et urbani vi Romanorum pontificum predecessorum nostrorum quam nostro mandato super hiis habita sunt de veritate premissorum per testes ydoneos et alias probaciones legitimas cercius informati eisque veris compertis et pro parte Carissime in christo filie nostre margarete regine swecie illustris ac prelatorum et procerum regni sui necnon dilectorum filiorum populi et officialium alme urbis, ac dilectarum in christo filiarum sancti laurencii et de Vazsteno monasteriorum predictorum abbatissarum, et conventuum sepius et cum instancia requisiti, in nomine domini ut jam tandem viduam eius celeberriman beneicentres benedicamus, et super eam effloreat sanctificacio nostra ad honorem dei omnipotentis patris et filii et spiritus sancti, et ad exaltacionem ortodoxe fidei, et christiane religionis augmentum necnon ad sedacionem scismatus ac fidei et ecclesie unionem, auctoritate ipsius dei omnipotentis patris et filii et spiritus sancti, ac beatorum apostolorum petry supradicti et pauli, atque nostra de fratrum nostrorum consilio et assensu omniumque prelatorum in romana curia consistencium, decernimus, declaramus, diffi [fol. 8]numus sive pronunciamus bone memorie beatam Byrgictam [margin, canonicationis ] alias brigidam supra sepis nominatam sanctam esse, et tamquam sanctam ab universali ecclesia venerari, ac sanctorum cathalogo ascribi debere, et ipsam nuns ascribimus de presenti. Statuentes ut universali ecclesia anno quolibet in die qua illam post devicum triumphatumque mundum in perpetuas eternitates presens vita partuiir, videlicet x kalendas augusti festum ipsius et officium sicut pro una sancta non virgine, nec martire devote et solemniter celebratur. Et ut ad venerabile sepulcrum ipsius ardencius et affluencius christi fidelium confluat multitudo et eiusdem sancte celebrius colatur festivitas, et eius nomen crebrius recolatur, auctoritate predicta, omnibus vere penitentibus et confessis qui sepulcrum eius huiusmodi apud ipsum monasterium in vasteno in eiusdem festi, necnon v kalendas juinii, quo videlicet die huiusmodi corpus venerandum apud ipsum monasterium translatum fuit, et sub ad presens occurrenti diebus devote visitaverint annuatim singulis videlicet eorundem dierum diebus quibus dictum sepulcrum visitaverint ut prefertur septem annos et totidem quadragenas de iniunctis eis penitenciis misericorditer relaxamus. Quocirca universitatem vestram monemus, requirimus, et hortamur attente, vobis nichilominus in virtute sancta obediencie et ad eternorum premiorum augmentum districtius, iniungentes quatinus presentes litteras nostras, Cleris et Populis vestris auctoritate nostra solemniter publicantes, festum huiusmodi venerabilis sancte cum solemnitate debita celebretis, et faciatis eciam celebrari, omnipotentem deum a quo sancta desideria, recta consilia, et iusta sunt opera, totis cordis affectibus [fol. 8v] humiliter deprecantes, ut eiusdem sancte precibus ut meritis exoratus det servis suis illam quam mundus dare non potest pacem, ut et corda nostra mandatis suis dedita, et hostium sublata formidine tempora sua protectionem tranquilla, nobisque concedat ut post peractum nostrem villicacionis ministerium nuacum credito nobis grege mereamur ad sempiterna gaudia pervenire. Datum rome apud sanctum petrum Nonis octobrum pontificatus nostri Anno Secondo.

Urbanus episcopus servus servorum dei. Ad perpetuam rei memoriam. Dum precelsa meritorum insignia quibus regina celorum virgo dei genitris gloriosa sedibus prelata sidereis quasi stella matutina prerutilat devota consideracionis indagine perscrutamur dum eciam in pectoris archano revoluimus que ipsa utpote mater misericordie et gracie pietatis amica, humani generis consolatrix pro salute fidelium qui delictorum onere pregravantur sedula exoratrix et pervigil ad regem quem genuit intercedit, dignum quin pocius debitum arbitramur ut oratoria ad honorem sui nominis dedicata graciosis remissionum prosequamur impendis, et indulgenciarum muneribus honoremus. Cupientes itaque ut ecclesia monasterii monialium in casto Watsstene lincopensis diocesis quod per dilectam in christo filiam nobilem mulierem Catherina quondam Ulfonis de Ulfasono militis natam dicte diocesis et quondam Brygidam eius matrem ad honorem et sub vocabulo eiusdem beate marie de bonis suis de novo fundatum, et copiose dotatum dicitur, et in qua quidem ecclesia corpus dicte Brigide requiescit, et in qua omnipotens deus presertim in festo sancti Petri ad vincula, in quo ad ispam ecclesiam [fol. 9] numerosa multitudo fidelium regni suecie, et aliarum nacionum causa devocionis peregre annuatim ut asseritur confuit, multa signa ostendit et miracula operatur congruis honoribus frequentetur, et ut christi fideles devocionis causa eo libencius ad ipsam ecclesiam confluant quo ex hoc ibidem uberius dono celestie gracie conspexerint se refectos, de omnipotentis die misericordia et beatorum petri et pauli apostolorum eius auctoritate confisi omnibus vere Penitentibus et confessis qui in dicto festo prefaam ecclesiam devote visitaverint annuatim omnes et singulas indulgencias et remissiones peccatorum ac relxaciones iniunctarum penitenciarum quas quicumque Romani pontifices predecessores nostri, ecclesiam Sancti petri ad vincula de urbe in eodem festo annuatim visitantibus indulserunt sive indulgencie remissiones et [marg, ad vincula] relaxaciones huiusmodi quas haberi volumus presentibus pro expressis in perpetuum sive ad certum tempus concesse fuerint modo et forma et ad tempus quibus per eosdem pontifices concesse existunt auctoritate apostolica misericorditer concedimus per presentes. Nulli ergo omnino hominum liceat hanc paginam nostre concessionis infringere vel ei ausu temerario contrarie. Siquis autem hoc attemptare presumpserit indignacionem omnipotentis dei et beatorum petri et pauli apostolorum eius se noverit incursurum. Datum Tibure iii kalendas augusti Pontificatus nostri Anno Primo.

Urbanus episcopus servus servorum dei. Ad perpetuam rei memoriam. Dum precelsa meritorum insignia quibus regina celorum virgo dei genitrix gloriosa sedibus prelata sidereis quasi stella matutina prerutilat, devota consideracionis [fol. 9v] indagine perscrutamur, dum eciam in pectoris archano revoluimus que ipsa utpote mater misericordie et gracie, pietatis amica, humani generis consolatrix pro salute fidelium qui delictorum onere pregravantur sedula exoratrix et pervigil ad regem quem genuit intercedit, dignum quin pocius debitum arbitramur, ut oratoria ad honorem sui nominis dedicata graciosis remissionum prosequamur impendis, et indulgenciarum muneribus honoremus. Cupientes itaque ut ecclesia monasteri monialium de castro wastene ordinis Sancti augustini lincopensis diocesis quod per dilectam in christo filiam nobilem mulierem Catharinam quondam Ulfonis de Ulfassoni militis natam dicte diocesis et per quondam Brigidam eius matrem ad honorem et sub vocabulo eiusdem beat marie de bonis suis denovo fundatum et copiose dotatum dicitur et in quaquidem ecclesia corpus dicte Brigide requiscit, et in qua omnipotens deus multa signa ostendit et miracula operatur, congruis honoribus frequentetur et ut christi fiedeles eo libencius huius modi devocionis cause confluant ad eandem ecclesiam quo ex hoc ibidem dono celestis gracie uberius conspexerint se refectos, de omnipotentis dei misericordia et beatorum Petri et pauli apostolorum eius auctoritate confisi omnes et singulas indulgencias et remissiones peccatorum ac relaxaciones iniunctarum penitenciarum quas tam felicis recordacionis Alexander Papa iiii quam alii predecessores nostri Romani pontifices personis visitantibus quascumque ecclesias locorum dicti ordinis hactenus indulserunt seu concesserunt, sive volumus presentibus pro expressis in perpetuum, sive ad certum tempus concesse fuerint modo et forma et ad tempus quibus per eosdem pontifices concesse existunt, dummodo de iure non fuerint revocate auctoritate apostolica ad vere penitentes et confessos qui prefatam ecclesiam devote visitaverint extendimus, et eis misericorditer concedimus per presentes. Nulli ergo omnio hominum liceat hand paginam nostre extensionis et concessionis infringere, vel ei ausu temerario contrarie. si quis autem hod attemptare presumpserit, indignacionem omnipotentis dei et beatorum Petri et pauli apostolorum eius se noverit incursurum. Datum tibure iii kalendas augusti pontificatus nostri Anno Primo. Nos igitur quas prefatas litteras apostolicas sicut premittitur diligenter inspeximus et perlegimus easque non cancellatas, non rasas, non abolitas, nec in aliquibus suis partibus viciatas, sed cum bullis et signis ut superius diximus more Romane curie bullatas et munitas esse invenimus. Ideo presens ex ipsis apostolicis litteris transcriptum de verbo ad verbum nostrorum sigillorum munimine una cum sigillo prefati monasterii duximus roborandum. Scriptum in monasterio sanctarum marie virginis et byrgitte wazstena, Anno domini Moccco xco septimo decima die mensis Junuii . . .

[Fol. 10v]

Et ego Johannes Johannis presbiter lincopensis dyocesis publicus auctoritate Imperiali notarius Quia predictarum litterarum apostolicarum seu bullarum transscripcionem omnibusque aliis permissis dum sit ut praesuntiturfierent, et agerentur, una cum pronotarius testibus primus interfui Rogatus pro priorem et fratres Conventuales monasterii predict requisitus Eaque fit fieri, vidi et audivi ideoque presens transscriptum me aliis arduis occupatis negociis pro alium fideliter scriptis exinde confeci, et in hanc publicam formam redegi quam, Signo Manu et nomine meis solitis propris et consuetis una cum Reverendorum prefatorum dominorum Episcoporum Sigillorum quibus, dicuntur, appensionem subscribendo signavi. In testimonium omnium singulorum et premissorum.

Published, Atti dell'incontro internazionale di studio, Roma, 3-7 ottobre 1991/ Proceedings of the International Study Meeting, Rome, October 5-7, 1991. Pp. 860-900. Prefaced: John Paul II. Roma: Casa Generalizia Suore Santa Brigida, 1991.

Indices to Umiltà Website's Essays on Julian:


Influences on Julian
Her Self
Her Contemporaries
Her Manuscript Texts
with recorded readings of them
About Her Manuscript Texts
After Julian, Her Editors
Julian in our Day

Publications related to Julian:


Saint Bride and Her Book: Birgitta of Sweden's Revelations Translated from Latin and Middle English with Introduction, Notes and Interpretative Essay. Focus Library of Medieval Women. Series Editor, Jane Chance. xv + 164 pp. Revised, republished,  Boydell and Brewer, 1997. Republished, Boydell and Brewer, 2000. ISBN 0-941051-18-8

To see an example of a page inside with parallel text in Middle English and Modern English, variants and explanatory notes, click here. Index to this book at http://www.umilta.net/julsismelindex.html

Julian of Norwich. Showing of Love: Extant Texts and Translation. Edited. Sister Anna Maria Reynolds, C.P. and Julia Bolton Holloway. Florence: SISMEL Edizioni del Galluzzo (Click on British flag, enter 'Julian of Norwich' in search box), 2001. Biblioteche e Archivi 8. XIV + 848 pp. ISBN 88-8450-095-8.

To see inside this book, where God's words are in red, Julian's in black, her editor's in grey, click here. 

Julian of Norwich. Showing of Love. Translated, Julia Bolton Holloway. Collegeville: Liturgical Press; London; Darton, Longman and Todd, 2003. Amazon ISBN 0-8146-5169-0/ ISBN 023252503X. xxxiv + 133 pp. Index.

To view sample copies, actual size, click here.

Julian of Norwich, Showing of Love, Westminster Text, translated into Modern English, set in William Morris typefont, hand bound with marbled paper end papers within vellum or marbled paper covers, in limited, signed edition. A similar version available in Italian translation. To order, click here.

'Colections' by an English Nun in Exile: Bibliothèque Mazarine 1202. Ed. Julia Bolton Holloway, Hermit of the Holy Family. Analecta Cartusiana 119:26. Eds. James Hogg, Alain Girard, Daniel Le Blévec. Salzburg: Institut für Anglistik und Amerikanistik Universität Salzburg, 2006.

Anchoress and Cardinal: Julian of Norwich and Adam Easton OSB. Analecta Cartusiana 35:20 Spiritualität Heute und Gestern. Salzburg: Institut für Anglistik und Amerikanistik Universität Salzburg, 2008. ISBN 978-3-902649-01-0. ix + 399 pp. Index. Plates.

Teresa Morris. Julian of Norwich: A Comprehensive Bibliography and Handbook. Preface, Julia Bolton Holloway. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 2010. x + 310 pp.  ISBN-13: 978-0-7734-3678-7; ISBN-10: 0-7734-3678-2. Maps. Index.

Fr Brendan Pelphrey. Lo, How I Love Thee: Divine Love in Julian of Norwich. Ed. Julia Bolton Holloway. Amazon, 2013. ISBN 978-1470198299


Julian among the Books: Julian of Norwich's Theological Library. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2016. xxi + 328 pp. VII Plates, 59 Figures. ISBN (10): 1-4438-8894-X, ISBN (13) 978-1-4438-8894-3.

Mary's Dowry; An Anthology of Pilgrim and Contemplative Writings/ La Dote di Maria:Antologie di Testi di Pellegrine e Contemplativi. Traduzione di Gabriella Del Lungo Camiciotto. Testo a fronte, inglese/italiano. Analecta Cartusiana 35:21 Spiritualität Heute und Gestern. Salzburg: Institut für Anglistik und Amerikanistik Universität Salzburg, 2017. ISBN 978-3-903185-07-4. ix + 484 pp.

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