W=Westminster Cathedral Manuscript, '1368'/circa 1450/1500, Syon Abbey, London, Lisbon
S=Sloane, British Library, Sloane Manuscripts, '1387-1393'/1650-1670, 'Norwich', Cambrai/Paris
P=Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, anglais 40, Manuscript, '1387-1393'/circa 1580, Syon Abbey-in-exile
A=Amherst, British Library, Amherst Manuscript, '1413'/1413-1435, Lincoln Carmel, Sheen/Syon Abbey
G=Margaret Gascoigne, Bridget More Manuscript, St Mary's Abbey, Colwich, H18, Cambrai/Paris
U=Upholland Fragment Manuscript, Scribe, Barbara Constable, Cambrai/Upholland/Stanbrook
M=The Book of Margery Kempe, Lynn, Mount Grace Priory, British Library, Additional 61,823
N=Norwich Castle Manuscript, 158.926/4g.5

Pale Text=Editors' Comments
Dark Text=Julian's Words
Red Text=Christ's Words

Click on red arrows below for soundtracks of readings


/S/ Revelations to one who could not read a letter. Anno Domini 1373. A Particular of the Chapters. The First Chapter of the Number of the Revelations particularly
/P/ Here Begins the First Chapter /SP/
his is a Revelation of Love that Jesus Christ, our endless bliss, made in Sixteen Showings, /S/ or Revelations particular, /SP/ of whichThe First Showing is of his precious crowning with thorns. And therein was comprehended and specified the /P/ blessed /SP/ Trinity with the Incarnation and Unity between God and man's soul with many fair Showings of endless wisdom and teachings of love, in which all the Showings that follow be grounded and /S/ oned /P/ joined. /SP/The Second Showing is the discolouring of his fair face in tokening of his dearworthy Passion. The Third Showing is that our Lord God, all mighty, all wisdom, all love, right as truly as he has made every thing that is, so truly he does and works all things that are done. The Fourth Showing is the scourging of his tender Body with plenteous shedding of his /P/ precious /SP/ blood.The Fifth Showing is that the fiend is overcome by the precious Passion of Christ. The Sixth Showing is the worshipful thanking of our Lord God in which he rewards /P/ all /SP/ his blessed servants in heaven.The Seventh Showing is often feeling of weal and woe. Feeling of well-being is gracious touching and lightening, with true secureness of endless joy. The feeling of woe is temptation by heaviness and /S/ irksomeness /P/ weariness /SP/ of our fleshly living with ghostly understanding that we are kept so /S/ surely /P/ truly /SP/ in love, in woe as in wellness, by the goodness of God.The Eighth Showing is the last pains of Christ and his cruel /S/ dying /P/ drying. /SP/ The Ninth Showing is of the liking which is in the blessed Trinity of the hard Passion of Christ and his rueful dying in which joy and liking he will we be solaced and mirthed with him till we come to the /S/ fullness /P/ glory /SP/ of heaven. The Tenth Showing is our Lord Jesus shows in love his blissful heart even cloven in two /S/ enjoying. /SP/The Eleventh Showing is a high ghostly Showing of his dearworthy Mother. The Twelfth Showing is that our Lord is /S/ most worthy /P/ all sovereign /SP/ being. The Thirteenth Showing is that our Lord God wills that we have great regard to all the deeds that he has done in the great nobleness of making all things and of the excellency of /

making man who is above all his works, and of the precious amends that he has made for man's sin, turning all our blame into endless worship, /S/ where also our Lord says, /P/ then means he thus, /SP/ 'Behold and see, for by the same might, wisdom and goodness, /P/ that I have done all this, by the same might, wisdom and goodness, /SP/ I shall make well all that is not well and you shall see it'. And in this he wills we keep us in the faith and truth of holy Church, not willing to know his secrets now, but only as it belongs to us in this life. The Fourteenth Showing is that our Lord is ground of our prayer. Herein were seen two /P/ fair /SP/ properties: that one is rightful prayer, that other is /S/ secure /P/ true /SP/ trust, which he wills both be alike large. And thus our prayer delight him and he of his goodness fulfills it.The Fifteenth Showing is that we shall suddenly be taken from all our pain and from all our woe, and of his goodness we shall come up above where we shall have our Lord Jesus to our reward and be fulfilled of joy and bliss in heaven. The Sixteenth Showing is that the blessedful Trinity, our Maker in Christ Jesus our Saviour, endlessly dwells in our soul, worshipfully ruling and /S/ giving /P/ commanding /SP/ all things, us mightily and wisely saving and keeping for love, and we shall not be overcome by our enemy.
/S/ Of the time of these Revelations, and how she asked three petitions. /SP/ The Second Chapter.
/S/ These Revelations were showed /P/his Revelation was made /SP/ to a simple creature /S/ who knew no letter, /P/ unlettered living in deadly flesh, /SP/ the year of our Lord 1373 the /S/ eighth /P/ thirteenth /SP/ day of May, which creature had desired before three gifts /P/ by the grace /SP/of God.

Amherst Manuscript
/A/{ere is a vision showed by the goodness of God to a devout woman, and her name is Julian, who is a recluse at Norwich and is living yet in this year of our Lord 1413. In which vision are very many comfortable and most stirring words to all those who desire to be Christ's lovers.
{ desired three graces by the gift of God. /SPA/ The first was mind of /S/ his /P/ the /A/ Christ's /SPA/ Passion. The second was bodily sickness /S/ in youth at thirty years of age. /SPA/ The third was to have of God's gift three wounds. /SP/ As in the first /A/ For the first came to my mind with devotion, /SPA/ I thought I had /SP/ some /A/ great /SPA/ feeling in the Passion of Christ. But yet I desired more by the grace of God. I thought I would have been that time with Mary Magdalen and with others who were Christ's lovers, /PA/ that I might have seen bodily the Passion that our Lord suffered for me, that I might have suffered with him as others did who loved him, /A/ notwithstanding that I believed solemnly all the pains of Christ as holy Church shows and teaches and also the paintings of Crucifixes that are made by the grace of God after the teaching of holy Church to the likeness of Christ's Passion as much as man's knowledge may reach.

Bishop Despenser's Retable commissioned to celebrate the drawing, hanging and quartering of Litester, the 'King of the Commons', at the Peasants' Revolt

Not withstanding all this true belief, /SP/ and therefore I desired a bodily sight wherein I might have more knowledge of the bodily pains of /A/ our Lord, /SPA/ our Saviour, and of the compassion of our Lady and of all his true lovers /P/ who were living and /SP/ who saw that time/

Miles Stapleton, who was executor of the Countess of Suffolk's legacy to Julian and father of Emma Stapleton who
became a Carmelite anchoress in Norwich, commissioned this manuscript.

his pains, /A/ who believed his pains that time and since, /SPA/ for I would be one of them and suffer with him. I never desired any other sight or Showing of God till the soul were departed from the body, /P/ for I believed to be saved by the mercy of God /A/ for I truly trust that I would be saved /PA/ and this was my meaning for /SPA/ The cause of /SP/ this petition was that /SPA/ after the Showing I /SP/ should /A/ would /SPA/ have the more true mind in the Passion of Christ. The second came to my mind with contrition freely /P/ without any seeking, /SA/ desiring /P/ a wilfull desire to have /PA/ of God's gift, /SPA/ that sickness so hard as to the death that I might in that sickness undergo all my rites of holy Church, myself believing that I should die, and that all creatures might suppose the same who saw me, for I would have no kind of comfort of /A/ fleshly or /SPA/ earthly life. In this sickness I desired to have all kinds of pains bodily and ghostly that I should have if I should die, with all the dreads and /SA/ tempests /P/ temptations /SPA/ of the fiends, /A/ and all manner of pains, /SPA/ except the outpassing of the soul. /SP/ And this I meant for I would be purged by the mercy of God, and after live more to the worship of God, because of that sickness, /P/ for I hoped it would have been a reward to me when I should have died /SA/ and that for the more aid in my death, /SPA/ for I desired to be soon with my God /P/ and Maker. These two desires, of the Passion and the sickness, I desired with a condition, saying thus, /PA/ for I thought that it passed the common course of prayers and therefore I said, /SPA/ 'Lord, you know what I would, if it be your will that I have it, /A/ grant it me, /SPA/ and if it be not your will, good Lord, be not displeased, for I will nought but as you will'. /PA/ This sickness I desired in my /SP/ youth /A/ thought /SP/ that I might have it /PA/ when I was thirty years old. /SPA/ For the third, /SP/ by the grace of God and teaching of holy Church,
Mosaic apse, marble sculpture of St Cecilia, Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome (Adam Easton's Basilica as Cardinal)

Amherst Manuscript

/A/ I heard a man tell of holy Church the story of St Cecilia. In the which Showing I understood she had three wounds with a sword, in the neck, from which she pined to the death. By the stirring of this, /SPA/ I conceived a mighty desire, /SP/ to receive /A/ praying our Lord that he would grant me, /SPA/ three wounds in my life, that is to say, the wound of /SP/ true /SPA/ contrition, the wound of /SP/ natural /SPA/ compassion, and the wound of wilfull longing to God. /S/ And all this last petition I asked /PA/ Right as I asked the other two with a condition, so I asked the third /SPA/ without any condition. These two foresaid desires passed from my mind, and the third dwelled /S/ with me /SPA/ continually.
/S/ Of the sickness obtained of God by petition. /SP/ The Third Chapter. /SPA/
{nd when I was thirty /SP/ years /A/ winter /SPA/ old and a half, God sent me a bodily sickness in which I lay three days and three nights, and on the fourth night I took all my rites of holy Church and thought not to have lived until day. And/

after this I langoured a further two days and two nights. And on the third night, I believed often times to have passed, and so believed they who were with me, /S/ and in youth. /SPA/ Yet I /A/ thought it was very sad and /SPA/ thought it great grief to die, but I wanted to live for nothing that was on earth, nor for any pain that I feared. For I trusted in God /SP/ of his mercy, /SPA/ but it was to have lived that I might have loved God better and for longer time, that I might /PA/ by the grace of that living /SPA/ have the more knowing and loving of God in the bliss of heaven. For I thought all the time that I had lived here, so little and so short in regard of that endless bliss, I thought /S/ nothing. Wherefore I thought /SPA/ 'Good Lord, may my living no longer be to your worship'. And I /SP/ understood /A/ was answered /SPA/ by my reason and by my feeling of my pains that I should die, and I assented fully with all the will of my heart to be at God's will. Thus I endured till day and by then my body was dead from the midst downwards as to my feeling. Then was I stirred to be set upright, propped up with help, /A/ leaning with cloths to my head, /SPA/ to have more freedom of my heart to be at God's will, and thinking on God while my life would last. /SP/ My Curate was sent for /A/ And they who were with me sent for the Parson, my Curate /SPA/ to be at my ending /SP/ and by the time he came /SPA/ I had set my eyes and might not speak. /A/ He came and a child with him and brought a cross. /SP/ He /A/ The Parson /SPA/ set the Cross before my face and said, /A/ 'Daughter, /SPA/ I have brought you the image of your /S/ Maker and /SPA/ Saviour. Look upon it and comfort yourself with it, /A/ in reverence of him who died for you and me. /SPA/ I thought I was well, for my eyes were set up rightward into heaven, where I trusted to come /SP/ by the mercy of God. /SPA/But nevertheless I assented to set my eyes in the face of the Crucifix, if I might, /SP/ and so I did. For I thought I might /SPA/ longer endure /A/ to the time of my ending /SPA/ to look even forth than right up. After this my sight began to fail and it was all dark about me in the chamber, /A/ and murky /SPA/ as it had been night, save in the image of the Cross wheren I beheld a common light, and I knew not how. All that was beside the Cross was ugly /P/ and fearful /SPA/ to me as if it had/

Jan van Breughel the Elder when dying, 'Death of the Virgin'

been much occupied with the fiends. After this the other part of my body began to die so /SP/ much that scarcely I had any feeling /A/ as to my feeling. My hands fell down on either side. And also from weakness my head settled to one side. /P/ The most pain I felt was /SPA/ with shortness of breath /PA/ and failing of life. /SPA/And then I believed truly I would die. And in this suddenly all my pain was taken from me and I was as hale and namely in the other part of my body as ever I was before /A/ or after. /SPA/ I marveled at this sudden change, for I thought it was a privy working of God, and not of nature, and yet by the feeling of this ease I trusted never the more to live. Nor was this feeling of ease really comfort to me, for I thought I had rather be delivered from this world /PA/ for my heart was wilfully set thereto. /SP/Then /A/{And /SPA/ came suddenly to my mind that I should desire the second wound of our Lord's gracious gift, /A/ and of his grace, /SPA/ that my body might be fulfilled with mind and feeling of his blessed Passion, /PA/ as I had before prayed. /SPA/ For I would that his pains were my pains, with compassion and afterward longing to God. This I thought that I might with his grace have the wounds that I had before desired. But in this I desired never bodily sight nor any Showing of God, but compassion as, /PA/ I thought, /SPA/ a natural soul might have with our Lord Jesus who for love would have been a mortal man, and therefore I desired to suffer with him, /PA/ living in my deadly body, as God would give me grace. /SP/
The First Revelation. /S/ Here Begins the First Revelation of the precious crowning of Christ, etc., in the First Chapter, and how God fulfills the heart with most joy and of his great meekness, and how the sight of the Passion of Christ is sufficient strength against all temptations of the fiends and of the great excellency and humility of the blessed Virgin Mary./SP/ The Fourth Chapter. /SPA/
/A/ And /SPA/ in this suddenly I saw the red blood trickling down from under the Garland, hot and freshly and right plenteously, /PA/ and lively, right /A/ as I thought /SPA/ as it were in the time /S/ of his Passion /SPA/ that the garland of thorns was /SP/ pressed /A/ thrust /SPA/ on his blessed head. Right so, both God and Man, the same who suffered thus for me. I conceived truly and mightily, that it was he himself who showed it to me without any intermediary. /SP/ And in/

the same Showing suddenly the Trinity fulfilled my heart most of joy, and so I understood it shall be in heaven without end to all who shall come there. For the Trinity is God. God is the Trinity. The Trinity is our Maker and keeper, the Trinity is our everlasting lover, /P/ the Trinity is our /SP/ everlasting joy and bliss by our Lord Jesus Christ, /P/ and in our Lord Jesus Christ. /SP/ And this was showed in the First Showing and in all, for where Jesus appears the blessed Trinity is understood as to my sight. /SPA/And I said, 'Benedicite, /PA/ Dominus, /S/ Domine, Blessed be the Lord'. This I said for reverence in my meaning with a mighty voice, and full greatly was astonished for wonder and marvel that I had, that he /SP/ who is so reverend and dreadful /SPA/ will be so homely with a sinful creature living in wretched flesh. This I took for that time /PA/ that our Lord Jesus of his courtesy would show me comfort before /SPA/ the time of my temptation for I thought by the allowing of God /PA/ and with his keeping, /SPA/ I should be tempted of fiends before I died. With this sight of the blessed Passion with the Godhead that I saw in my understanding I /SP/ knew /A/ saw /SPA/ well that it was strength enough to me, Yea, and to all living creatures /PA/ who should be saved /SP/, against all /S/ the fiends of hell and /SP/ ghostly /PA/ enemies /S/ temptation. /SPA/ In this he brought our /SP/ blessed /SPA/ Lady /P/ Saint Mary /SPA/ to my understanding. I saw her ghostly in bodily likeness, a simple maiden and meek, young /SP/ of age and little grown above a child, /SPA/ in the stature that she was when she conceived with child.

Westminster Manuscript
/W/ {Our gracious and good Lord /SPA/ Also /WSPA/ God showed /WPA/ me /WSPA/ in part the wisdom and the truth of /W/ the soul of our blessed Lady Saint Mary /SPA/ her soul /WSPA/ wherein I understood the reverent beholding that she beheld her God /WPA/ who is her /S/ and /WSPA/ Maker, marveling with great reverence that he would be born of her who was a simple creature of his making. /WPA/ For this was her marveling, that he who was her maker would be born of her who /WP/ is made /A/ was a simple creature of his making. /WSPA/ And this wisdom and truth, knowing the greatness of /WPA/ her /S/ his /WPA/ Maker and the littleness of her self, who is made, caused her to say full meekly to /A/ the angel /WSPA/ Gabriel, 'Behold me, God's handmaiden'. In this sight I /WSP/ understood /A/ saw /WSPA/ truly that she is more than all that God made beneath her in /WSA/ worthiness /P/ wordiness /WSPA/ and /WPA/ fullness /S/ grace. /WSPA/ For above her is nothing that is made but the blessed /WPA/ manhood /WSPA/ of Christ /WS/ as to my sight. /W/ And this our good Lord showed to my understanding in teaching of us.

Paris Manuscript
/S/How God is to us everything that is good, tenderly wrapping us. And all thing that is made, in regard to Almighty God it is nothing. And how man has no rest until/

he noughts himself and all thing for the love of God. /SP/ The Fifth Chapter.
/A/ {And /SP/ In /SPA/ this same time /PA/ I saw this /P/ sight of the head bleeding /A/ bodily sight, /SPA/ our Lord showed to me a ghostly sight of his homely loving. /W/ Also, /SPA/ I saw that /W/ our good Lord /SPA/ he /WSPA/ is to us everything that is good and comfortable /SP/ for us /W/ to our help. /WSPA/He is our clothing that for love, wraps us, embraces us, /W/ helps us and enables us /SPA/ and all becloses us, /WPA/ hangs about us /WSPA/ for tender love that he may never leave us, being to /SPA/ us /W/ me /PA/ and so in this sight I saw that he is /A/ truly /WSPA/ all thing that is good as to my understanding.

Westminster Manuscript

Also in this he showed a little thing the quantity of a hazel nut /WPA/ lying /WSPA/ in the palm of my hand, /WP/ as it had seemed to me, /A/ This little thing that is made that is beneath our Lady Saint Mary, God showed me as little as it had been a hazel nut, and to my understanding, /WSPA/ and it was as round as a ball. /WSP/ I looked thereupon /WSP/ with the eye of my understanding /WSPA/ and thought, 'What may this be?' And it was generally answered thus, 'It is all that is made'. I marveled how it might last, for I thought it might suddenly have fallen to nought for littleness. And I was answered in my understanding, 'It lasts and ever shall, for God loves it'. And so all things have their /W/ beginning /SPA/ being /WPSA/ by the love of God. In this little thing I saw three properties: The first is that God made it; The second that God loves it; The third that God keeps it. But what /WSA/ is this to me, /P/ beheld I, /WSPA/ truly, the Maker, the Keeper and the Lover, /S/ I cannot tell. /WSPA/ For, till I am substantially oned to him I may never have full rest, nor true bliss; that is to say until I be so fastened to him, that there be right nought that is made between my God and me. /WP/ This little thing that is made, I thought, might have fallen to nought for littleness. /A/ And who shall do this deed? Truly himself by his mercy and his grace, for he has made me for this and blissfully restored me thereto. /A/ In this blessed Revelation God showed me three noughts, of which noughts this is the first that was showed to me. /WP/ Of this /WSP/ we /A/ each man and woman who desires to live contemplatively needs /S/ need /SA/ to have knowledge /S/ of the littleness of creatures and /WSPA/ to like as nought all things that are made, for to love and have God who is unmade. /WSPA/For this is the cause why /WSP/ we /A/ they /WSPA/ be not all in ease of heart and soul, for /WSP/ we /A/ they who are occupied wilfully in earthly business and evermore seek worldly weal are not heirs of his in heart and in soul for they love and /WSPA/ seek here rest, in these things that are so little wherein is no rest, and know not our God who is all mighty, all wise, all good. For he is the very rest. God will be known and he likes us to rest in him, for all that is beneath him does not suffice us. /WSP/ And this is the cause why no soul is rested, until it is noughted of all things that are made. /SPA/ When /S/ he /PA/ she /SPA/ is wilfully noughted for love to have him who is all, /WSPA/ then is he /P/ she /WSPA/ able to receive ghostly rest. /WSP/Also our Lord God showed that it is very great pleasure to him, that an innocent soul come/

to him nakedly, plainly, and homely. For this is the natural /P/ dwelling /WS/ yearning /WSP/ of the soul by the touching of the holy Ghost, as by the understanding that I have in this Showing. 'God, of your goodness give /W/ unto /WSP/ me yourself, for you are enough to me. And I may ask nothing that is less, that may be full worship to you. And if I ask anything that is less, ever I am in want, but only in you I have all'. And these words, /W/ 'God, of your goodness' /P/ of the goodness of God, /WSP/ are fully loving to the soul and very near touching the will of /WP/ our Lord /S/ God and his goodness. /WSP/ For his goodness /WS/ comprehends /P/ fulfills /WSP/ all his creatures and all his blessed works and overpasses without end. For he is the endlessness, and he has made us only to himself and restored us by his /S/ blessed /WP/ precious /WSP/ Passion, and /WP/ ever /WSP/ keeps us in his blessed love; and all this is of his goodness.
/S/ How we should pray of the great tender love that our Lord has to man's soul, willing us to be occupied in knowing and loving of him. /SP/ The Sixth Chapter. /WSP/
This Showing was /S/ made /WP/ given, to my understanding /WSP/ to teach our soul wisely to cleave to the goodness of God. And in that /P/ same /WSP/ time the custom of our praying was brought to /WPA/ my /WSP/ mind, how we use, for /S/ lack of understanding and /WSP/ unknowing of love to make many means. Then I saw truly that it is more worship to God, and more true delight that we faithfully pray to himself of his goodness, and cleave thereto by his grace with true understanding and steadfast belief, than if we made all the means that heart can think. For if we make all these means it is too little and not full worship to God. But in his goodness is all the whole, and there truly nought fails. For thus as I shall say came to my mind, in the same time, we pray to God for his holy flesh and for his precious blood, his holy Passion, his dearworthy death and /WP/ worshipful /WSP/ wounds, and all the blessed nature, the endless life that we have of all this, is his goodness. And we pray him for his sweet mother's love, who bare him, and all the help we have of her, is of his goodness; And we pray for his holy Cross that he died on and all the virtue and the help that we have of the Cross, it is of his goodness. And in the same way all the help that we have of special/

saints, and all the blessed company of heaven, the dearworthy love and /W/ holy /WSP/ endless friendship that we have of them, it is /W/ all /WSP/ of his goodness. /WS/For God of his goodness, /W/ for God of his great goodness /P/ For the means that the goodness of God /WSP/ has ordained /WS/ means /WSP/ to help us /W/ in most loving and blessed ways /SP/ be wholely fair and many. /WSP/Of which the chief and principal means is the blessed nature that he took of the Maiden /W/ Mary /WSP/, with all the means that went before and come after, which belong to our redemption, and to endless salvation. Wherefore it pleases him that we seek him, and worship by means, understanding and knowing that he is the goodness of all. For /WP/ to /WSP/ the goodness of God is the highest prayer, and it comes down to the lowest part of our need. It quickens our soul and brings it to life and makes it to grow in grace and virtue. It is nearest in nature and readiest in grace. For it is the same grace that the soul seeks and ever shall till we know /WP/ our God /WSP/ truly, who has us all in himself beclosed. /WP/ A man goes upright and the soul of his body is stored as in a full fair purse. And when it is time of his need, it is opened amd shut again full honestly. And that it is he who does this, is showed there where he says that he comes down to us to the lowest part of our need. /WSP/ For he has no contempt of what he has made, nor has he any disdain to serve us at the simplest office that belongs naturally to our body, for love of the soul, that he has made to his own likeness.For as the body is clothed in cloth, and the flesh /SP/ in skin, and the bones in flesh, /WSP/ and the heart in the chest, so are we soul and body clad in the goodness of God and enclosed, Yea, and more homely. For all these may waste and wear away. The goodness of God is ever whole and nearer to us without any likeness. For truly our lover desires that our soul /W/ climb /SP/ cleave /WSP/ to him with all our might and that we be ever more /W/ climbing /SP/ cleaving /WSP/ to his goodness. For of all things that our heart may think it pleases God most and soonest helps. For our soul is so /WP/ preciously /S/ specially /WSP/ loved of him who is highest, that it overpasses the knowing of all /W/ other /WSP/ creatures/

That is to say there is no creature who is made who may understand how much and how sweetly,  and how tenderly our Maker loves us, and therefore we may with his grace and his /W/ holy /SP/ help /WSP/ stand in ghostly beholding with everlasting marveling in this high overpassing unmeasurable love, that /S/ almighty God /WP/ our Lord /WSP/  has to us of his goodness. And therefore we may ask of our lover with reverence all that we will. For our natural will is to have God and the good will of God is to have us, and we may never cease of willing nor of /WP/ loving /S/ longing /WSP/ till we have him in fullness of joy. And then may we no more /W/ desire /SP/ will, /WSP/ for he will that we be occupied in knowing and loving /W/ of him, /WSP/ till the time /W/ come /WSP/ that we shall be fulfilled in heaven. /SP/ And therefore was this lesson of love showed, with all that follows, as you shall see. For the strength and the ground of all was showed in the First Sight. /WSP/ For of all things the beholding and the loving of the Maker, /W/ causes /SP/ makes /WSP/ the soul to seem least in his own sight and most fills it with reverent dread and true meekness, with plenty of charity to his even-Christian.
/S/ How our Lady beholding the greatness of her Maker thought herself least, and of the great drops of blood running from under the garland. And how the most joy to man is that God most high and mighty is holiest and most courteous. /SP/ The Seventh Chapter.
And to teach us this as to my understanding our Lord God showed our Lady Saint Mary in the same time. That is to mean the high wisdom and truth she had in beholding of her Maker, /WP/ This wisdom and truth made her to behold her God, /WSP/ so great, so high, so mighty, and so good. This greatness and this nobleness of the beholding of God fulfilled her of reverent dread, and with this she saw herself, so little and so low, so simple and so poor in regard of her Lord God, that this reverent dread fulfilled her of meekness./

Santa Maria Novella, Nativity with St Birgitta

And thus by this ground she was fulfilled of grace and of all manner virtues and overpasses all creatures. /SPA/In all the time that he showed this, that I have said, now in ghostly sight, I saw the bodily sight lasting of the plenteous bleeding of the head. /SP/ The great drops of blood fell down from under the garland, seeming like pellets, as it had come out of the veins. And in the coming out it was brown red, for the blood was very thick. And in the spreading about it was bright red. And when it came to the brows, then it vanished. And notwithstanding the bleeding continued till many things were seen and understood. /P/ Nevertheless /SP/ The fairness and the liveliness is like nothing but the same /P/ continued in the same beauty and liveliness.The plenteousness is like to the drops of water that fall off the eaves /P/ of a house /SP/ after a great shower of rain that fall so thick that no man many number them with bodily knowledge. And for the roundness it was like to the scale of herring, in the spreading on the forehead.
Dragon warehouse below St Julian's Alley, on the Wensum River, up which herring would be brought
Listen to Malcolm Guite: http://www.ampublishing.org/flanagan/riprap-guite-saying names-clip.mp3

These three came to my mind in that time, pellets for roundness in the coming out of the blood, the scale of herring in the spreading /S/ on the forehead for roundness, /SP/ and raindrops from eaves /P/ of a house /SP/

Blomefield tells us St Julian's Church nave had a thatched roof

for the innumerable plenteousness. This Showing was quick and lively and hideous and dreadful, sweet and lovely. And of all the sight /P/ that I saw, this /S/ it was most comfort to me that our God and Lord, who is so reverent and dreadful, is so homely and courteous. And this most fulfilled me with liking and secureness of soul. And to the understanding of this he showed this open example. It is the most honour that a solemn King or a great Lord may do to a poor servant, if he will be homely with him, and namely if he shows it himself, of a full true meaning and with a glad cheer both privately and openly./

Then thinks this poor creature thus, 'Ah, how might this noble Lord do more worship and joy to me than to show me, who am so /S/ simple /P/ little /SP/ this marvelous homeliness. Truly it is more joy and liking to me, than if he gave me great gifts and were himself aloof in manner'. This bodily example was showed so high, that man's heart might be ravished and almost forget himself for joy of this great homeliness. Thus it fares by our Lord Jesus and by us. For truly it is the most joy that may be, as to my sight, that he who is highest and mightiest, noblest and worthiest, is lowest and meekest, homeliest and most courteous. And truly and surely this marvelous joy shall be shown us all when we see him. And this wills our /P/ good /SP/ Lord, that we /S/ will /P/ believe /SP/ and trust, joy and delight, comforting us and solacing us, as we may with his grace and with his help, into the time that we see it truly. For the most fullness of joy that we shall have, as to my sight, is the marvelous courtesy and homeliness of our Father who is our Maker in our Lord Jesus Christ, who is our Brother and our Saviour. But this marvelous homeliness may no man know in this time of life, but if he have it of special Showing of our Lord, or of great plenty of grace inwardly given of the holy Ghost. But faith and belief with charity deserve the reward, and so it is had by grace. For in faith with hope and charity our life is grounded. The Showing was made to whom God will plainly teach the same, opened and declared with many secret points belonging to our faith /P/ and belief /SP/ which be worshipful to know. And when the Showing which is given in a time is passed and hid, then the faith keeps it by grace of the holy Ghost into our life's end. And thus by the Showing it is none other than the faith, not less nor more, as it may be seen by our Lord's meaning in the same matter/

by which it comes to the /P/ last /SP/ end.
/S/A recapitulation of what is said and how it was showed to her generally for all. /SP/ The Eighth Chapter. /SPA/
{And /A/ in that time that our lord showed this as I have now said in ghostly sight /SPA/ as long as I saw this sight of the plenteous bleeding of the head I might never cease of these words, 'Benedicite /PA/ Dominus /S/ Domine, /SPA/ Blessed be the Lord'. In which Showing I understood six things. The first is the tokens of the blessed Passion and the plenteous shedding of his precious blood. The second is the Maiden who is dearworthy Mother. The third is the blessedful Godhead who ever was, is and ever shall be, all Mighty, all Wisdom, all Love. The fourth is all things that he has made. For well I know that /SP/ heaven and earth and /SPA/ all that is made, is great and large, fair and good. But the cause why it showed so little to my sight was, because I saw it in the presence of him who is the Maker /S/ of all things. /SPA/ For a soul who sees the maker of all /PA/ thing, /S/ all /SPA/ that is made seems fully little. The fifth is he who made all things for love, by the same love it is kept and shall be without end, /PA/ as it is said before. /SPA/The sixth is that God is every thing that is good /SP/ as to my sight, /SPA/ and the goodness that all things have, it is he. And all these our Lord showed me in the First Sight /SP/ with /A/ and gave me /SPA/ time and space to behold it. And the bodily sight ceased, and the ghostly sight dwelled in my understanding. And I stayed with reverent dread joying in what I saw. And I desired, as I dared, to see more, if it were his will, or else the same /P/ sight /SPA/ a longer /SA/ time. /SPA/ In all this I was much stirred in charity to my even-Christian, that they might see and know the same that I saw. For I would it were comfort to them, for all /A/ as it is to me. For /SPA/ this sight was showed in general, /A/ and nothing in particular. Of all that I saw this was the most comfort to me that our Lord is so homely and so courteous. And this most filled me with delight and secureness in soul. /SPA/ Then said I to /SP/ them /A/ the folk /SPA/ who were about me, 'It is Doomsday today with me'. And this I said for I believed I was dying. For that day when a man /PA/or woman /SPA/ dies, he is judged /P/ particularly /SPA/ as he shall be without end, as to my understanding. This I said for I would they loved God the better, /A/ and set the less price by the vanity of the world, /SPA/ for to make them to have mind that this life is short as/

they might see in this example /A/ by me. /SPA/ For in all this time I thought to have died, /SP/ and that was marvel to me and /SA/ grief /P/ wonder /SPA/ in part, for I thought this Vision was shown for them who should live. /SP/ And what I /S/ say /P/ mean /A/ {All that I saw /SPA/ of me, I mean in the person of all my even-Christians. For I am taught in the ghostly Showing of our Lord God that he means so. And therefore I pray you all for God's sake, and counsel you for your own profit that you leave the beholding of a /SP/ wretch /A/ the wretched world sinful creature /SPA/ to whom it was showed, and mightily, wisely and meekly behold /P/ in /SPA/ God, who of his courteous love and endless goodness would show it generally in comfort of us all. /A/ And you who hear and see this vision and this teaching, that is of Jesus Christ to the edification of your soul. /SP/ For /SPA/ it is God's will /A/ and my desire /SPA/ that you take it with great joy and liking, as Jesus had showed it unto you /S/ all /A/ as he did to me.
/S/Of the meekness of this woman keeping herself always in the faith of holy Church and how he who loves his even-Christian for God loves all things. /SP/ The Ninth Chapter. /SPA/
For the Showing I am not good but if I love God the better. /A/ And so may and so should every man do who sees it and hears it with good will and true meaning. And so is my desire that it should be to every man the same profit that I desired to myself, and thereto was stirred by God the first time I saw it, for the common and general profit, as we are all one. And I am secure I saw it for the profit of many others. /SP/ And inasmuch as you love God the better it is more to you than to me. I say not this to them who be wise for they know it well, but I say it to you who be simple, for ease and comfort. For we are all one in /S/ comfort /P/ love. /SPA/ For truly it was not showed me that God loved me better than the least soul who is in grace. For I am sure that there be many who never had Showing nor Sight but of the common teaching of holy Church, who love God better than I. For if I look singularly to myself, I am right nought. But in general I am, /S/ in /P/ I /SP/ hope, /SPA/ in oneness of charity with all my even-Christians. For in this onehead stands the life of all mankind that shall be saved. For God is all who is good /SP/ unto my sight. /A/ And if any man or woman sets aside his love from any of  his even-Christians he truly loves right nought for he loves not all and so at that time he is not saved, for he is not in peace. /SPA/ And God has made all that is made, and God loves all that he has made. And he who generally loves all his even-Christians for God, he loves all /SP/ that is /A/ he is saved. For in mankind who shall be saved, is comprehended all, that is to say all that is made, and the Maker of all. For in man is God, /SP/ and God is in all /A/ and so in man is all. /P/ And he who loves thus, he loves all. /S/ And thus I desire love, and thus I love and thus I am saved. For I mean in the person of my even-Christian. And the more I love of this loving while I am here, the more I am like to the bliss that I shall have in heaven without end, who is God who of his endless love would become our brother and suffer for us. And I am secure, /SP/ And I hope, by the grace of God, /SPA/ he who beholds it thus shall be truly taught and mightily comforted if he needs comfort./

/A/ But God forbid that you should say or take it so that I am a teacher, for I do not mean so. No, I never meant so. For I am a woman, unlearned, feeble and frail. But I know well this that I say, I have it of the Showing of him who is sovereign teacher. But truly charity stirs me to tell you it. For I would God were known and my even-Christians helped, as I would be myself, to the more hating of sin and loving of God. But because I am a woman, should I therefore believe that I should not tell you the goodness of God? Since I saw in that same time that it is his will that it be known, and that you shall see well in the same matter that follows after, if it be well and truly taken. Then shall you soon forget me who am a wretch, and do what I do not stop, and behold Jesus who is the teacher of all. /SPA/ I speak of them who shall be saved. For in this time God showed me none other. But in all things I believe as holy Church /S/ believes, /SP/ preaches and /SPA/ teaches, /SP/ for the faith of holy Church, which I had understanding beforehand and, as I hope by the grace of God, wilfully kept in use and custom, stood continually in my sight, willing and meaning never to receive anything that might be contrary thereunto. And with this intent /P/ and with this meaning /SP/ I beheld the Showing with all my diligence. /SPA/ For in all this blessed Showing /A/ of our Lord /SPA/ I beheld it as one in God's /SP/ meaning, /A/ sight and I understand nothing in it that scandalizes or blocks me from the true teaching of holy Church. /SPA/{All this /A/ blessed teaching of our Lord God /SPA/ was showed /A/ to me in three parts /SPA/ by threes, that is to say: by bodily sight; and by word formed in my understanding; and by ghostly sight. But the ghostly sight I cannot nor may not show it as openly nor as fully as I would. But I trust in our Lord God Almighty, that he shall, of his goodness, and for your love, make you to take it more ghostly and more sweetly than I can or may tell it. /SP/
The Second Revelation /S/is of his discolouring, etc., and of our redemption and the discolouring of the Vernicle, and how it pleases God we seek him busily, abiding him steadfastly and trusting him mightily. /SP/ The Tenth Chapter. /SPA/
{And after this I saw with bodily sight in the face of the Crucifix that hung before me, in the which I beheld continually a part of his Passion: contempt; spitting; and swallowing; and buffetting /A/ in his blissful face /SPA/; and many langouring pains, more than I can tell; and often changing of colour. /SP/ And one time I saw how half the face, beginning at the ear was covered over with /A/ all his blessed face at times closed in /SPA/ dry blood /SP/ until it be closed to the mid-face. And after that the other half was closed in the same way. And there while /P/ it vanished /SP/ in this part, even as it came. /SPA/This I saw bodily, /SP/ sorrowfully /A/ heavily /SPA/ and darkly, and I desired more bodily /S/ sight /PA/ light /SPA/ to have seen more clearly. And I was answered in my reason, 'If God will show /SP/ you /A/ me /SPA/ more he shall be your light. /SP/ You /A/ I /SPA/ need none but him'. /SP/ For I saw him be sought. /W/ Furthermore /WSP/ For we are now so blind and so unwise that we never seek God, till /P/ what time /WSP/ he of his goodness shows himself to us. And when we see ought of him graciously, then are we stirred by the same grace to seek/

with great desire to see him more blissfully. And thus I saw him and sought him, and I had him and I wanted him. And this is and should be our common working in this /PW/ life /WSP/ as to my sight. /SP/ One time my understanding was /S/ led /P/ let /SP/ down into the sea ground, and there I saw hills and dales seeming green as it were moss grown with wreck and with gravel. Then I understood thus, that if a man or woman were under the broad water, if he might have sight of God, so as God is with a man continually, he should be safe in body and soul, and take no harm. And overpassing, he should have more solace and comfort than all this world /P/ may or /SP/ can tell.

Guthlac Arriving at Croyland. Pega his sister. Harleian Guthlac Roll Y.6. By Permission of The British Library. Reproduction Prohibited.

See also Michael and Linda Falter's facsimile of the Kennicott Bible miniature for Jonah and the whale: http://www.facsimile-editions.com/en/kb/index.html
especially folio 305 on which you can click for the enlarged version: http://www.facsimile-editions.com/en/kb/images/305r.l.jpg

For he will that we believe that we see him continually though we think that it be but little. And in this belief he makes us evermore to get grace. For he will be seen, and he will be sought, he will be waited for, and he will be trusted. This Second Showing was so low, and so little, and so simple, that my spirits were in great travail, in the beholding, mourning, dreadful and longing, for I was sometimes in /S/ doubt /P/ fear /SP/ whether it was a Showing /P/ or none. /SP/ And then diverse times our good Lord gave me more sight, whereby I understood truly that it was a Showing. It was a figure and likeness of our foul /P/ black /SP/ dead /S/ skin, /SP/ that our fair bright, blessed Lord bare for our sins. It made me to think of the holy Vernicle of Rome which he has portrayed with his own blessed face, when he was in his hard Passion, wilfully going to his death, and often changing of colour. Of the brownness and blackness, sadness and leanness. Of this image many marvel how it might be. Understanding that he portrayed it with his blessed face, which is the fairness of heaven, flower of earth, and the fruit of the Maiden's womb. Then how might this image be so discolouring and so far from fair?

Vernicle. Novgorod

I /S/ desire to say /P/ desired to see /SP/ as I have understood by the grace of God. We know in our faith,/

and believe by the teaching and preaching of holy Church, that the blessed Trinity made mankind to his image and to his likeness. In the same way we know that when man fell so deep, and so wretchedly by sin, there was no other help to restore man, but through him who made man. And he who made man for love, by the same love he would restore man to this same bliss, and overpassing. And like as we were like made to the Trinity in our first making, our Maker would that we should be like Jesus Christ our Saviour in Heaven without end, by the virtue of our again making. Then between these two he would for love and worship of man make himself as like to man in this deadly life in our foulness and our wretchedness, as man might be without guilt. Whereof it means, as it was said before, it was the image and likeness of our foul black dead /S/ skin, /SP/ wherein our fair bright blessed Lord God is hid. But /S/ full surely /P/ truly /SP/ I dare say and we ought to /S/ trust /P/ believe /SP/ that, so fair a man was never none but he, till what time his fair colour was changed, with travail and sorrow, and Passion dying. Of this it is spoken in the /S/ Eighth Revelation, /P/ Second Revelation in the Eighteenth Chapter /SP/ where it treats more of the same likeness. And there it says of the Vernicle of Rome, it /S/ moves /P/ means /SP/ by diverse changing of colour and cheer, sometimes more comfortably and lively, and sometimes more ruthfully and deadly, as it may be seen /S/ in the Eighth Revelation /P/ thereafter. /SP/ And this Vision was a learning to my understanding that /W/ For /WSP/ the continual seeking of the soul pleases God very much, for it may do no more than seek, suffer, and trust. And this is wrought in /W/ each /S/ the /P/ every /WSP/ soul who has it by the holy Ghost. And the clearness of finding is of his special grace, when it is his will. The seeking with faith, hope and charity pleases our Lord. And the finding pleases the soul and fulfills it with joy. And thus was I taught to my understanding, that seeking is as good as beholding, for the time that he will suffer the soul to be in travail./

It is God's will that we seek him to the beholding of him. For by that he shall show us himself of his special grace whan he will. And how a soul shall have him in his beholding he shall teach himself, and that is most worship to him, and profit to /WP/ the soul /S/ yourself, /WSP/ and most receives of meekness and virtues with the grace and leading of the holy Ghost. For a soul that only fastens him on to God with true trust, either by seeking or in beholding, it is the most worship that he may do to him, as to my sight. /SP/ These are two workings that must be seen in this Vision. That one is seeking. The other is seeing. The seeking is common that every soul has with his grace, and ought to have with discretion and teaching of the holy Church. /WSP/ It is God's will that we have three things in our seeking /WP/ of his gift. /WSP/ The first is that we seek wilfully and busily without sloth, as it may be through his grace, gladly and merrily, without unreasonable heaviness and vain sorrow. The second is that we await him steadfastly for his love without grouching and striving against him at our life's end, for it shall last but a while. The third is that we trust in him mightily of full secured /P/ and true /WSP/ faith. For it is his will that we know he shall appear suddenly and blissfully to all his lovers. For his working is secret, and he will be perceived and his appearing shall be /WS/ swift /P/ sweet /WSP/ sudden, and he will be /S/ believed /P/ trusted /WSP/ for he is most merciful and homely, /WP/ and courteous, /WSP/ Blessed must he be. /SP/
The Third Showing, /S/How God does all things except sin, never changing his purpose without end. For he has made all things in fullness of goodness./SP/ The Eleventh Chapter. /WSPA/
And after this I saw God in a point. That is to say in my understanding. By which sight I saw that he is in all things. I beheld attentively seeing and knowing in /WPA/ that /WSPA/ sight /P/ that he does all that is done /PS/ I marveled in that sight /SPA/ with a soft dread and thought 'What is sin?' For/

I saw truly that /SA/ God does all things /WP/ he does all that is done, /WSPA/ be it never so little. /WSP/ And I saw truly that /WSPA/ nothing is done by chance, nor by luck, but all things by the /A/ endless /WSA/ foreseeing /P/ foresaid /WPSA/ wisdom of God. /WSP/ If it seem chance or fortune in the sight of man, our blindness and our lack of foresight is the cause. /SP/ For the things that are in the /WSA/ foreseeing /P/ foresaid /WPSA/ wisdom of God from without beginning (which rightfully and worshipfully and continually he leads to the best end as they come about), fall to us suddenly, ourselves unaware, and thus by our blindness and our lack of foresight we say they are by chance or peradventure /S/ but to our Lord God they be not so./P/ Thus I understood in this Showing of Love. /WP/ For well I know in the sight of our Lord is no chance nor luck. /S/ But to our Lord God they be not so. /WSPA/ Wherefore I need to grant that all thing that is done, it is well done, /WSP/ for our Lord God does all. For in this time the working of creatures was not showed, but of our Lord God in the creature. For he is in the mid-point of all things and all he does. /WSPA/ And I was secure that /WSP/ he /A/ God /WSPA/ does no sin. /WSP/ And here I saw truly that sin is no deed. /A/ Therefore it seemed to me that sin is nought. /SPA/ For in all this sin was not showed /A/ me. And I would no longer marvel in this, but beheld our Lord what he would show /A/ me. /SP/ And thus as it might be for the time being, the rightfulness of God's working was showed to the soul. Rightfulness has two fair properties. It is right and it is full. And so are all the works of our Lord God. And thereto need neither the working of mercy and grace. For it be all rightful, wherein nought fails. /SPA/ And in another time he showed for the beholding of sin nakedly as I shall /SP/ say /A/ tell afterward. /P/ After /SP/ where he uses working of mercy and grace. And this Vision was showed to my understanding. For our Lord will have the soul turned truly into the beholding of him, and generally of all his works, for they are full good. And all his /S/ doings /P/ judgments /SP/ be easy and sweet and bring the soul to great ease, that is turned from the beholding of the blind judging of man unto the fair sweet judging of our Lord God. For a man beholds some/

deeds well done and some deeds evil. But our Lord beholds them not so. For as all that has being in nature is of God's making, so are all things that are done in property of God's doing. For it is easy to understand that the best deed is well done, and the highest, so well as the best deed is done, and the highest, so well is the least deed done, and all in property, and in the order that our Lord has ordained to it from without beginning. For there is no doer but he. /WSP/ I saw full /WS/ surely /P/ truly /WSP/ that he never changes his purpose in any manner of thing nor ever shall without end. For there was nothing unknown to him in his rightful ordinance from without beginning. And therefore all things were set in order before anything was made. As it should stand without end. /SP/ And no manner of thing shall fail of that point, for he /P/ has /SP/ made all things in fullness of goodness. And therefore the blessed Trinity is always most pleased in all his works. And /SP/ all this he showed full blissfully, /W/ Also among other Showings, our good Lord, /WSP/ meaning thus, 'See I am God. See I am in all things. See I do all things. See I never lift my hands from off my work, nor ever shall without end. See I lead all things to the end I ordained them to, and from without beginning, by the same might, wisdom and love, that I made them. How should anything be amiss?' /SP/ Thus mightily, wisely and lovingly was the soul examined in this Vision. Then I saw truly that I needed to assent with great reverence, enjoying in God. /SP/
The Fourth Revelation, /S/How God likes rather and better to wash us in his blood from sin than in water. For his blood is most precious./SP/ The Twelfth Chapter. /SPA/
And after this I saw beholding the body plenteously bleeding /A/ hot and freshly and lively, right as I saw before in the head. And this was showed /SPA/ in the gashes from the scourging /SP/ as thus. The fair skin was broken full deep into the tender flesh with sharp blows all about the sweet body so plenteously that where the hot blood ran out there was neither seen skin nor wound but as it were all blood. And when it came where it should have fallen down, then/

it vanished, notwithstanding the bleeding continued a while till it might be seen with concern, and /SPA/ this was so plenteous to my sight that I thought, if it had been so in nature /SP/ and in substance /SPA/ for that time, it should have made the bed all bloody and spilled over about. /SP/And then came to my mind that /SPA/ God has made waters plenteous on earth to our service, and to our bodily ease, for tender love that he has to us. But yet he likes better that we take most /S/ homely /P/ wholesomely /A/ fully /SPA/ his blessed blood to wash us of sin. For there is no liquor that is made, that he likes so well to give us. For it is most plenteous, /SP/ as it is most precious, and that by the virtue of his blessed Godhead. /SPA/ And it is our /P/ own /SPA/ nature /SP/ and all blessedly flows to us by the virtue of his precious love. The dearworthy blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, as truly as it is most precious, so truly is it most plenteous. Behold and see how /P/ the virtue of /SP/ the precious plenty of his dearworthy blood /P/ it /SP/ descended down into Hell and broke their bonds and delivered all that were there who belonged to the court of Heaven. The precious plenty of his dearworthy blood overflows all earth and is ready to wash all creatures of sin, who be of good will, have been and shall be. The precious plenty of his dearworthy blood, ascends up into Heaven to the blessed body of our Lord Jesus Christ. And there is in him bleeding, and praying for us to the Father, and is, and shall be, as long as /S/ it needs /P/ we need. /SP/ And evermore it flows in all heavens enjoying the salvation of all mankind, and that are there and shall be, fulfilling the number that fails.
The Fifth Revelation /S/ is that the temptation of the fiend is overcome by the Passion of Christ to the increase of our joy and to his pain everlastingly. /SP/ The Thirteenth Chapter. /SPA/
And after, before God showed /A/ to me /SPA/ any /SP/ words, /A/ wounds, /SPA/ he allowed me to behold in him a /S/ knowable /P/ convenient /A/ longer /SPA/ /

time, and all that I had seen and all /SP/ intellect, /SPA/ that was therein, /SP/ as the simplicity of the soul might take it. /SPA/ Then he without voice and opening of lips, forms in my soul these words, 'Herewith is the fiend overcome'. These words our Lord said, /SP/ meaning /A/ moving /SPA/  his blessed Passion as he showed /A/ me /SPA/ before. In this our Lord /A/ brought into my mind and /SPA/ showed /A/ me /PA/ a part of the fiend's malice, and fully his weakness, for he showed /SPA/ that the Passion of him is the overcoming of the fiend. God showed /A/ me /SPA/ that the fiend has now the same malice that he had before the Incarnation. And as sore he travails and as continually he sees that all /A/ chosen /SPA/ souls /SP/ sent of salvation /SPA/ escape from him worshipfully /SP/ by the virtue of /S/ Christ's /P/ his /SP/ precious Passion. /SPA/ And that is /A/ all /SPA/ his sorrow /SP/ and full evil he is /S/ humbled /P/ ashamed. /SPA/ For all that God allows him to do, turns us to joy, and him to shame /SP/ and /S/ woe /PA/ pain. /SPA/ And he has as much sorrow when God gives him leave to work as when he works not. And that is for he may never do as /S/ evil /PA/ ill /SPA/ as he would. For his might is all /S/ taken /PA/ locked /SPA/ in God's hands. /SP/ But in God may be no wrath, as to my sight. For our Lord God endlessly has regard to his own worship. And to the profit of all who shall be saved. And with might and right he withstands the reproved, who of malice and shrewdness busy themselves to contrive and to do against God's will. /SPA/Also I saw our Lord scorn his malice, and nought his weakness, and he will that we do so. For this sight I laughed mightily. And that made them to laugh, who were about me, and their laughing was a delight to me. I thought I would that all my even-Christians had /S/ been /PA/ seen /SPA/ as I saw and then should they all laugh with me. But I saw not Christ laughing. /P/ But well I know that sight that he showed me, made me laugh. /SP/ For I understood /A/ Nevertheless he likes /SPA/ that we may laugh in comforting of ourselves, and joying in God. For the devil is overcome. /SP/And then I saw him scorn his malice. It was by /S/ leading /P/ holding /SP/ of my understanding into our Lord. That is to say, an inward showing of truthfulness without changing of cheer. For as to my sight it is a /S/ worshipful /P/ wonderful /SP/ property that is in God which is durable. /SPA/And after this I fell into a sadness and said 'I see three things, game, scorn and earnest. I see game that the fiend is overcome,/

I see scorn that God scorns him and he shall be scorned, and I see earnest that he is overcome by the /SP/ blessed /SPA/ Passion /SP/ and death /SPA/ of our Lord Jesus Christ, that was done in full earnest and with sad travail. /SP/ And I said he is scorned. I mean that God scorns him, that is to say, for he sees him now, as he shall do without end. For in this God showed that the fiend is damned. And this I meant where I said, 'He shall be scorned' /P/ for I saw he shall be scorned /SP/ at Doomsday generally of all who shall be saved to whose /S/ consolation /P/ salvation /SP/ he has great envy. For then he shall see that all the woe and tribulation that he has done to them shall be turned to the increase of their joy without end. And all the pain and /S/ tribulation /P/ sorrow /SP/ that he would have brought them to shall endlessly go with him to Hell'.
The Sixth Showing /S/is of the worshipful thanks with which he rewards his servants and it has three joys. /SP/ The Fourteenth Chapter. /SPA/
After this our good Lord said, 'I thank you for your /P/ service and of your /SPA/ work and namely of your youth'. /SP/ And in this my understanding was lifted up into Heaven, where I saw our Lord as a Lord in his own house who has called all his dearworthy /S/ servants and /SP/ friends to a solemn feast. Then I saw the lord take no place in his own house. But I saw him royally reign in his house and fulfill it with joy and mirth, himself endlessly to gladden and to solace his dearworthy friends, full homely and full courteously, with marvelous melody of endless love in his own fair blessed cheer, which glorious cheer of the Godhead fulfills /P/ all /SP/ Heavens of joy and bliss. /SPA/{God showed /A/ to me /SPA/ three degrees of bliss that every soul shall have in heaven who willingfully has served God in any degree on earth. The first is the worshipful thanks of our Lord God, that he shall receive when he is delivered of pain. This thanking is so high and so worshipful that he thinks it fills him, though there were no more /A/ bliss. /SPA/ For I thought that all the pain and travail that might be suffered of all living men might not deserve the /SP/ worshipful /SPA/ thanks, that one man shall have who/

wilfully has served God. The second is that all the blessed creatures that are in Heaven shall see that worshipful thanking /A/of our Lord God. /SPA/ And he makes his service known to all who are in Heaven. /SP/ And in this time this example was showed. A King, if he thanks his /S/ servants /P/ subjects, /SP/ it is a great honour to them, and if he makes it known to all the realm then is his worship much increased. /SPA/ The third is that as new, and as pleasing as it is received at that time, right so shall it last without end. And I saw that /SP/ homely /A/ goodly /SPA/ and sweetly was this /A/said and /SPA/ showed /A/ to me, /SPA/ that the age of every man shall be known in Heaven, and shall be rewarded for his willing service and for his time. And namely the age of them who willingfully and freely offer their youth to God, is passingly rewarded and wonderfully thanked. /SP/ For I saw that when or what time a man or woman be truly turned to God for one day's service and for his endless will, he shall have all these three degrees of bliss. And the more that the loving soul sees this courtesy of God, the more willing /S/ he /P/ she /SP/ is to serve him all /S/ his /P/ her /SP/ life.
/S/ The Seventh Revelation is of often feeling weal and woe, etc. And how it is expedient that man sometimes be left without comfort, it not causing sin. /SP/ The Fifteenth Chapter. /SPA/
And after this he showed a sovereign ghostly liking in my soul. /A/ In this delight /SPA/ I was fulfilled of the everlasting secureness, mightily /S/ sustained /PA/ fastened /SPA/ without any painful dread. This feeling was so glad and so /SP/ ghostly /A/ goodly, /SPA/ that I was all in peace, /PA/ in ease /SPA/ and in rest, so that there was nothing in earth that should have grieved me. This lasted but a while, and I was turned and left to my self in heaviness, and weariness of my life, and disgust of /SP/ myself /A/ life /SPA/, that scarcely I could have the patience to live. There was no comfort, nor any ease for /S/ me /PA/ my feeling, /SPA/ but faith, hope and charity. And these I had in truth, but little in feeling. And soon after this our blessed Lord gave me again the comfort and the rest in soul in liking and secureness so blissful and so mighty, that no dread nor sorrow, nor bodily pain that might be/

suffered, should have diseased me. And then the pain showed again to my feeling. And then the joy and the liking. And now that one and now that other, diverse times. I suppose about twenty times. And in the same time of joy, I might have said with /SP/ Saint /SPA/ Paul, 'Nothing shall separate me from the charity of Christ'. And in the pain I might have said with /A/ Saint /SPA/ Peter, 'Lord, save me. I perish'. This vision was showed me /PA/ to teach me /SPA/ after my understanding: that it is /SP/ helpful to some souls /A/ needful to each man /SPA/ to feel in this way. Sometimes to be in comfort, and sometimes to fail and to be left to /SA/ himself /P/ themselves. God wills that we know that he keeps us /S/ even /PA/ ever /SPA/ alike, secure, in weal and in woe, /A/ and as much loves us in woe as in weal. /SPA/ And for profit of man's soul, a man is sometimes left to himself, although /P/ his /SPA/ sin is not ever the cause. For in this time I sinned not, wherefore should I be left to myself? /SP/ For it was so sudden. /SPA/Also, I deserved not to have this blessed feeling, but freely our Lord gives it /A/ weal /SPA/ when he will. And allows us to be in woe sometimes. And both is /S/ one /A/ of /SPA/ love. For it is God's will, that we hold us in comfort with all our might. For bliss is lasting without end, and pain is passing and shall be brought to nought /SP/ to them who shall be saved. /SPA/And therefore it is not God's will that we follow the feeling of pain in sorrow and mourning for them, but suddenly passing over and holding us in endless bliss, /PA/ that is God /A/ Almighty, our lover and keeper. /SP/
The Eighth Revelation /S/ is of the last piteous pains of Christ dying, and discolouring of his face and drying of his flesh. /SP/ The Sixteenth Chapter. /SPA/
{After this Christ showed a part of his Passion near his dying. I saw his sweet face as it was dry and bloodless with pale dying. And since more pale dead langouring, and then turned more dead into blue, and since more /P/ brown blue /S/ blue, /SP/ and the flesh turned more /SPA/ deeply dead. For /SP/ his Passion /A/ all the pains that Christ suffered in his body /SPA/ showed for me most properly in his blessed face, /A/ as much as I saw it, /SPA/ and namely in his lips. /SA/ There I saw these four colours. Those that were before fresh, ruddy and pleasing to my sight/

This was a /S/ ghastly /P/ pitiful /A/ heavy /SPA/ change to see this deep dying. And also the nose shriveled and dried to my sight. /SP/ And the sweet body was brown and black, all /P/ changed and /SP/ turned out of fair lively colour of himself unto dry dying. For /S/ each /P/ that same /SP/ time that our Lord and blessed Saviour died upon the Cross it was a dry, /S/ yowling /P/ sharp /SP/ wind and wonder cold as to my sight. And what time the precious blood was bled out of the sweet body that might pass there from, yet there dwelled a moisture in the sweet flesh of Christ as it was showed. Bloodlessness and pain, drying within and blowing of wind and cold coming from without, met together in the sweet body of Christ. And these four, /S/ two without and two within, /SP/ dried the flesh of Christ by process of time. And though this pain was bitter and sharp yet it was full long lasting as to my sight. And painfully dried up all the lively spirits of Christ's flesh. Thus I saw the sweet flesh /S/ die /P/ dry /SP/ in /S/ gashes /P/ my sight, /SPA/ by part after part, drying with marvelous pains. And as long as any spirit had life in Christ's flesh, so long suffered he /S/ pain. /SPA/ This long pining seemed to me as if he had been seven nights dying /SP/to the point of passing /S/ away, /P/ always /SP/ suffering the /S/ last /P/ great /SP/ pain. And when I said it seemed to me as if he had been seven nights dead, it means that the sweet body was so discoloured, so dry, so shriveled, so deadly and so piteous as he had been seven nights dead, continually dying. /SPA/And I thought the /SP/ dying /A/ drying /SPA/ of Christ's flesh was the most pain and the last of his Passion.
/S/ Of the grievous bodily thirst of Christ caused four ways and of his piteous crowning and of the most pain to a natural lover. /SP/ The Seventeenth Chapter. /SPA/
And in this /S/ dying /PA/ drying /SPA/ was brought to my mind the words of Christ, 'I thirst'. For I saw in Christ a double thirst, one bodily, another ghostly, /S/ which I shall speak of in the Thirty-First Chapter. /PA/ And for the ghostly thirst was showed /A/ to me, /PA/ as I shall say after. /S/ For this word was showed /SPA/ for the bodily thirst, which I understood /SA/ was caused /P/ the body had /SPA/ from failing of moisture. For the blessed flesh and bones were left all alone without blood and moisture. The blessed body dried alone a long time, with wringing of the nails /A/ weight of the head and /SPA/ and weight of the body. /SP/ For I understood that for tenderness of the sweet hands and of the sweet feet, by the largeness, hardness and grievousness/

of the nails, the wounds waxed wide and the body sagged by the weight hanging a long time, and the piercing and wringing of the head and binding of the crown all baked with dry blood with the sweet hair clinging and the dry flesh to the thorns, and the thorns to the /S/ dying /P/ drying /SP/ flesh. And in the beginning, while the flesh was fresh and bleeding the continual setting of the thorns made the wounds wide. And furthermore I saw that the sweet skin and the tender flesh with the hair and the blood were all raised and loosed above from the bone with the thorns /P/ and broken in many pieces /SP/ from where it was dagged in many pieces as a cloth that was sagging. And were hanging /SP/ as it would have fallen for heaviness /S/ and looseness /SP/ while it had natural moisture. And that was great sorrow and dread to me. For I thought I would not for my life have seen it fall. How it was done I saw not. But understood it was with the sharp thorns and the boistrous and grievous setting on of the Garland unsparingly and without pity. This continued awhile and soon it began to change. And I beheld and marveled how it might be. And then I saw it was, for it began to dry, and ceased a part of the weight and set about the garland. And thus it environed all about, as it were, garland upon garland. The Garland of the Thorns was dyed with the blood and the other garland and the head was all one colour as clotted blood, when it is dry. The skin of the flesh that was gashed of the face and of the body was in small wrinkles with a /S/ tanned /P/ tawny /SP/ colour like a dry board when it is /S/ kilned /P/ aged. /SP/

The tawny board in Birgitta's Oratory in Rome on which she wrote her Revelationes and on which her body, Thomas Gascoigne tells us, was laid at death,
seen by Margery Kemp who also kneeled on the stone on which Christ stood in the vision below to Birgitta announcing her death.

Birgitta's vision as a child of Christ bleeding, announcing she is his Bride, a vision to a
disciple of her with seven tiaras, the dictation to her of the Revelationes and finally
Christ's appearance to her in her oratory telling her of her coming death.

And the face more brown than the body. I saw four manner of dryings. The first was bloodless. The second was pain following after. And third /P/ is that he was /SP/ hanging up in the air as men hang a cloth to dry. The fourth, that the bodily nature asks for liquid. And there was no manner comfort ministered to him /S/ in all his woe and disease. /SP/ Ah, hard and grievous was his pain. But much harder and more grievous it was, when the moisture failed, and all began to dry, thus shriveling. These were /S/ the /P/ two /SP/ pains that showed in the blessed head. The first wrought/

to the /S/ dying /P/ drying /SP/ while it was moist. And that other slow with clinging drying /SPA/ with blowing of the wind from without, that dried him more and /SP/ pained /A/ pined him /SPA/ with cold than my heart can think. And other pains, for which pains I saw that all is too little that I can say, for it may not be told. /A/ But each soul after the saying of Saint Paul should feel in him that in Christ Jesus. /SPA/ The which Showing of Christ's pains filled me full of pain. For I knew well he suffered but once, but as he would show it to me and fill me with mind as I had before desired. /A/ My mother stood among the others and beholding me, lifted up her hand before my face to close my eyes. For she believed I was already dead or else that I had died, and this greatly increased my sorrow. For notwithstanding all my pains, I would not have been stopped for love that I had in him.

German Woodblock of Catherine of Siena's dying with her mother and disciples around her.
Compare with Breughel's 'Death of the Virgin' above. Dying was a public holy act

/SPA/ And in all this time of Christ's /S/ pains, /PA/ presence, /SPA/ I felt no pain, but for Christ's pains. Then I thought I knew but little what pain it was that I asked /SP/ and as a wretch I repented, thinking if I had known what it had been I would be loath to have prayed it. /SPA/For I thought it passed bodily death my pains. I thought, 'Is any pain /PA/ in Hell /SPA/ like this?' And I was answered in my reason, /SP/ 'Hell is another pain, for there is despair'. /A/ Despair is more for that is ghostly pain. But bodily pain is not more than this'. /SP/ But of all pains that lead to salvation, this is the most pain, to see /S/ your love /P/ the lover suffer. /SPA/How might any pain be more to me than to see him who is all my life, my bliss and all my joy, suffer. Here I felt /P/ steadfastly /PA/ truly that I loved Christ so much above my self, /A/ that I thought, it had been a great ease to me to have died bodily, /SP/ that there was no pain that might be suffered like to that sorrow that I had to see him in pain.
/S/ Of the spiritual martyrdom of our Lady and other lovers of Christ. And how all things suffered him good and ill. /SP/ The Eighteenth Chapter. /SPA/
Here I saw a part of the compassion of our /P/ blessed /SPA/ Lady Saint Mary, for Christ and she were so oned in love, that the greatness of /S/ his loving /PA/ her love /SPA/ was cause of the greatness of her pain. /SP/ For in this this I saw a substance of natural love continued by grace that creatures have to him, which natural love was most fully showed in his sweet Mother and overpassing, /SPA/ for so much as she loved him more than all others, her pains passed all others. /SP/ For ever the higher, the mightier, the sweeter that the love be the more sorrow it is to the lover to see that body in pain that is loved. /SPA/And /A/ so /SPA/ all his disciples and all his true lovers suffered pains more than their own bodily dying. For I am secure by my own feeling that the least of them loved him so far above themselves /SP/ that it passes all that I can say. /SPA/ Here I saw a great oneing between Christ and us /SP/ to my understanding. /SPA/ For when he was in pain, we were in/

pain, and all creatures who might suffer pain suffered with him. /A/ And they who knew him not, this was their pain /SPA/That is to say, all creatures /SP/ that God has made to our service. The firmament, the earth, failed for sorrow in their nature, in the time of Christ's dying. For it belongs naturally to their property to know him for their /SA/ God /P/ Lord /SPA/ in whom all their virtue stands. /A/ sun and moon, withdrew their service and so were they all left in sorrow for the time. /SP/When he failed then they needed for nature to fail with him as much as they might for sorrow of his pains. /SPA/ And thus those who /SP/ were his friends /A/ loved him /SPA/ suffered pain for love. And generally all, that is to say, they who knew him not, suffered for failing of all manner of comfort /A/ of all creatures, /SP/ save the mighty secret keeping of God. I mean two kinds of folk, /SP/ as it may be understood, by two persons, /A/ who knew him not /SP/, that one was Pilate, that other was Saint Dionysius of France, who was at that time a pagan. For when he saw wondrous and marvelous sorrows and dreads that befell in that time, he said, 'Either the world is now at an end or else he who is maker of nature suffers'. Wherefore he did write on an altar, 'This is /S/ the /P/ an /SP/ Altar of the Unknown God'. God of his goodness who makes the planets and the elements to work in their nature to the blessed man, and the cursed. In that time it was withdrawn from both, wherefore it was, that they who knew him not were in sorrow that time.

Adam Easton's Pseudo-Dionysius Manuscript

Thus was our Lord Jesus /S/ noughted /P/ pained /SP/ for us, and we stand all in this manner /S/ noughted /P/ of pain /SPA/ with him, and shall do till we come to his bliss as I shall say after.
/S/Of the comfortable beholding of the Crucifix, and how the desire of the flesh without consent of the soul is no sin; and the flesh must be in pain suffering until both be oned to Christ./SP/ The Nineteenth Chapter. /SPA/
In this /PA/ time /SPA/ I would have looked /S/ up of /P/ from /A/ beside /SPA/ the Cross and I dared not, for I knew well, while I beheld the Cross I was secure and safe; therefore I would not assent to put my soul in peril. For beside the Cross was no secureness /SA/ but ugliness /P/ for dread /SPA/ of fiends. Then a suggestion was made in my reason, as if it was friendly said /PA/ to me /SPA/, 'Look up to heaven to his Father'. And then I saw /PA/ well /SPA/ with the faith that I felt, that there was nothing /A/ to me /SPA/ between the Cross and heaven that might have diseased me. Either I had to look up or else to answer. ¶  I answered /SP/ inwardly with all the strength of my soul /SPA/ and said, 'Nay, I may not: for you are my heaven'. This I said for I would not. For I had rather been in that pain till Doomsday, than /AP/ to have /SPA/ come to heaven otherwise than by him. For I knew well that he who /SP/ bound /A/ bought /SPA/ me so sore should unbind me when he would. {Thus I /SP/ was taught to choose /A/ chose /SPA/ Jesus to my heaven whom I saw only in pain at that time, I wanted no other heaven than Jesus, who shall be/

my bliss whan I come there. And this has ever been a comfort to me, that I chose Jesus to be my heaven /SP/ by his grace /SPA/ in all this time of Passion and sorrow. And that has been a learning to me that I should ever more do so, choosing only Jesus to my heaven, in weal and woe. /SP/ And though I as a wretch had repented, as I said before if I had known what pain it had been, I would have been loath to have prayed. Here I saw truly that it was begrudging and /S/ damning /P/ frailty /SP/ of the flesh without assent of the soul, in which God assigns no blame. Repenting and willful choice be two contraries, which I felt both at the one and the same time, and they be two parts, one outward, that other inward. The outward part is our deadly fleshliness which is now in pain and woe and shall be in this life. Whereof I felt much at this time, and that part was that repented. The inward part is a high blissful life, which is all in peace and in love. And this was more secretly felt. And this part is in which mightily, wisely and wilfully I chose Jesus to be my heaven. And in this I saw truly that the inward part is master and sovereign to the outward, and not charging nor paying heed to the will of that, but all the intent and will is set endlessly to be oned into our Lord Jesus. That the outward part should draw the inward to assent, was not showed to me, but that the inward draws the outward by grace, and both shall be oned in bliss without end by the virtue of Christ, this was showed.
/S/Of the unspeakable Passion of Christ and of three things of the Passion always to be remembered. /SP/ The Twentieth Chapter. /SPA/
And thus I saw our Lord Jesus langouring a long time, for the oneing of the Godhead gave strength to the manhood, /SP/ for love /SPA/ to suffer more than all man might suffer. I mean not only more pain than all men might suffer, but also that he suffered more pain than all men of salvation who ever were from the first beginning until the last day /A/ no tongue /SPA/ might tell or /A/ heart /SPA/ fully think, /A/ the pains that our Saviour suffered for us, /SPA/ having regard to the worthiness of the highest worshipful king, and the shameful, despicable painful death. For he who is highest and worthiest was /SA/ most fully noughted /P/ foulest condemned /SPA/ and utterliest despised. /A/ But the love that made him to suffer all this, it passes as much his pains as heaven is above earth. For the pains were deeds done in a time by the working of love. But love was without beginning and is and ever shall be without any end. /SP/ For the highest point that may be seen in the Passion is to think and know who he is who suffered. /P/ Seeing after these two other points which be lower. That one is what he suffered. And that other, for whom he suffered. /SP/ And in this he brought a part in mind the height and nobility of the glorious Godhead, and therewith the preciousness and the tenderness of the blissful body which be oned together. And also the loathing that is in our nature to suffer pain. For as much as he was most tender and clean, right so was he most strong and mighty to suffer. And for every one's sin who shall be saved he suffered, and every man's sorrow./

And desolation /P/ and anguish /SP/ he saw and sorrowed, for naturalness and love. For in as much as our Lady sorrowed for his pains, as much he suffered sorrow for her sorrow. And more, in as much as the sweet manhood of him was worthier in nature. For as long as he was mortal he suffered for us, and sorrowed for us. And now he is uprisen and no more deadly, yet he suffered with us, /P/ as I shall say after. /SP/ And I beholding all this by his grace, saw that the love of him was so strong which he has to our soul, that willfully he chooses it with great desire. And mildly he suffered it with /S/ well paying /P/ great joy. For the soul who beholds it thus, when it is touched by grace he shall truly see that the pains of Christ's Passion pass all pains, that is to say, which pains shall be turned into everlasting /S/ passing /SP/ joys by the virtue of Christ's Passion.
/S/ Of three beholdings in the Passion of Christ and how we be now dying in the Cross with Christ, but his cheer puts away all pain. The Twenty-First Chapter. /SP/
It is God's will as to my understanding that we have three ways of beholding in his blessed Passion. The first is the hard pain that he suffered with contrition and compassion. And that showed our Lord in this time. And gave me might and grace to see it. And I looked after the departing with all my might and thought to have seen the body all dead, but I saw him not so. And right in the same time that I thought it seemed the life might no longer last and the showing of the end needs must be. /P/ The Twenty-First Chapter /A/ And /SPA/
Suddenly (I beholding in the same Cross), he changed his blissful cheer. The changing of his blissful cheer changed mine. And I was as glad and merry as it was possible to be. Then brought our Lord merrily to my mind, 'Where is now any point of the pain or of your grief?' And I was full merry. /SP/ I understood that we be now in our Lord's meaning in his Cross with him in our pains and our Passion dying, and we wilfully abiding in the same Cross with his help and his grace into the last point, suddenly he shall change his cheer to us, and we shall be with him in heaven. Between that one and that other shall /P/ all /SP/ be /S/ no /P/ one /SP/ time. And then shall all be brought to joy. And so meant he in this Showing. 'Where is now any point of your pain or your grief?' And we shall be fully blessed. And here I saw truly that if he showed us now his blissful cheer, there is no pain on earth or in any other place that should /S/ grieve /P/ trouble /SP/ us, but all things should be to us joy and bliss. But for he shows to us the /S/ time /P/ cheer /SP/ of Passion as he bore in this life and his Cross, therefore we are in disease and travail with him as our /S/ frailty /P/ nature /SP/ asks. And the cause why he suffers is because he will for his goodness make us be the /S/ heir /P/ heirs /SP/ with him in his bliss. And for this little pain that we suffer here, we shall have a high endless knowing in/

God which we might never have without that. And the harder our pains have been with him in his Cross, the more shall our worship be with him in his kingdom.
The Ninth Revelation, /S/ is of the liking, &c., of three Heavens and the infinite love of Christ, desiring every day to suffer for us, if he might, although it is not needful. /SP/ The Twenty-Second Chapter. /W/ Also in the Ninth Showing our Lord God said to her thus, /SPA/
{Then said our good Lord /SA/ Jesus Christ /SPA/ asking, /WSPA/ 'Are you well paid that I suffered for you?' /W/ And she said /WSPA/ I said,  'Yea, good Lord, thanks, Yea, good Lord', /A/ said I, /WSPA/ 'Blessed must you be'.  /WSP/ Then said Jesus our /WP/ good /S/ natural /WSP/ Lord, 'If you are paid, /WSPA/ I am paid, It is a joy, a bliss, an endless liking to me that ever I suffered Passion for you. And if I might suffer more I would /WSA/suffer /P/ have suffered /WPSA/ more'. /SPA/ In this feeling my understanding was lifted up into heaven. /SP/ And there I saw three heavens, of which sight I greatly marveled. And thought, 'I see three heavens and all the blessed manhood of Christ, none is more, none is less, none is higher, none is lower, but even like in bliss'. For the first heaven Christ showed me his Father in no bodily likeness but in his property and in his working. /SP/ That is to say I saw in Christ that the Father is. /SPA/ The working of the Father is this, that he gives reward to his Son Jesus Christ. /WSPA/ This gift and this reward is so blissful to Jesus, that his Father might have given him no reward that might have delighted him better. /SPA/For the first heaven that is the /SP/pleasing /A/ blessing /SPA/ of the Father, showed to me as a heaven, and it was full blissful. /WSPA/ For /SPA/ he /W/ the Father /WSPA/ is well pleased with all the deeds that Jesus has done about our salvation. Wherefore we be not only his by his buying, but also by the courteous gift of his Father. We be his bliss, we be his reward, we be his worship, we be his crown./WSP/ And this was a singular marvel and a full delectable beholding, that we be his crown. /WSPA/ This that I say is so great bliss to Jesus that he sets at nought all his travail and his hard Passion and his cruel and shameful death. /WA/ And in these words, 'If that I might /SPA/ suffer more I would suffer more', I saw truly that as often as he might die, so often he would /A/ die once for each man who shall be saved, as he died once for all, /WSPA/ and love should never let him have rest, till he had done it. /WSP/ And I beheld with great diligence to know how often he would die if he might. And truly the number passed my understanding and my wits so far, that my reason might not nor could comprehend it. /WSPA/ And when he had thus often died or should, yet he would set it at nought for love. /SPA/ For all he thinks but little in regard of his love. /WSP/ For though the sweet manhood of Christ might suffer but once, the goodness in him may never cease being offered. Every day /SP/ he is ready /WSP/ to the same if it might be. /SP/ For if he said he would for my love make new heavens and new earth, it were but little in reward. For this might /S/ be done every /P/ he do each /SP/ day if he would, without any travail. But for to die for my love so often that the number passes natural/

reason, it is the highest offer that our Lord God might make to man's soul as to my sight. Then means he thus, 'How should it then be, that I should not for your love do all that I might, which deed grieves me not, since I would for your love die so often, having no reward for my hard pains'. And here I saw for the second beholding in this blessed Passion, the love that made him to suffer passes as far all his pains, as heaven is above earth. For the pains was a noble /P/ precious and /SP/ worshipful deed done in a time by the working of love. And love was without beginning, is and shall be without ending. For which love he said full sweetly /A/ And that he showed me well,saying /PSA/ these words, 'If I might suffer more, /PS/ I would suffer more'. /SPA/ He said not, 'If it were needful to suffer more', /PA/ but, 'If I might suffer more'. /SPA/ For though it were not needful, but if he might suffer more he would. This deed and this work about our salvation was ordained as well as God might ordain it. /PA/ It was done as worshipfully as Christ might do it. /SPA/ And here I saw a full bliss in Christ. For his bliss should not have been full, if it might have been done any better /PA/ than it was done.
/S/How Christ will we joy with him greatly in our Redemption and to desire grace of him that we may do so. /SP/ The Twenty-Third Chapter. /SPA/
And in these three words, 'It is a joy, a bliss, an endless liking to me', were showed /A/ to me /SPA/ three heavens. As thus, for the joy I understand the pleasure of the Father,  and for the bliss, the worship of the Son, and for the endless liking, the holy Ghost. The Father is pleased, the Son is worshipped, the holy Ghost delights. /SP/And here I saw, for the third beholding, in his blissful Passion, that is to say, the joy and the bliss that make him like it. For our courteous Lord showed his Passion to me in five ways: Of which the First is the bleeding of the head. The Second is the discolouring of his /P/ blessed /SP/ face. The Third is the plenteous bleeding of the body from the gashes of the scourging. The Fourth is the deep /S/ dying /P/ drying. These four are aforesaid for the pains of the Passion. /SP/And the Fifth is that was showed for the joy and the bliss of the Passion. /W/ Also /WSP/ For it is God's will that we have true liking with him in our salvation. And therein he will we be mightily comforted and strengthened, and thus will he merrily with his grace that our soul be occupied. For we are his bliss. For in us he joys without end. And so shall we in him with his grace. And all that he has done for us and does and ever shall was never cost nor charge to him nor might be, but only that he died in our manhood, beginning at the sweet Incarnation and lasting till the blessed Uprising on Easter Morn. So long lasted the cost and the charge about our redemption in deed, of which deed he joys endlessly as it is before said. /WSPA/Jesus wills we take heed to the bliss that is in the /SPA/ blissful/

/WSPA/ Trinity of our salvation and that we desire to have as much ghostly liking with his grace /WA/ while we are here /WSP/ as it is before said. That is to say that the liking of our salvation be like the joy that Christ has of our salvation, as it may be while we are here. All the /W/ blessed /WSP/ Trinity wrought in the Passion of Christ, ministering abundance of virtues, and plenty of grace to us by him. But only the Maiden's Son suffered. Whereof all the /W/ glorious /SP/ blessed /WSP/ Trinity /S/ endlessly /WSP/ joys. /WSPA/ And this was showed in these words, 'Are you well paid?' And by that other word that Christ said, 'If you are /P/ well /WSPA/ paid than I am /P/ well /WSPA/ paid', /A/ he showed me this understanding. /SA/ As if he said, 'It is joy and liking enough to me. And I ask nought else of you for my travail but that I might well pay you'. /WSP/And in this he brought to /WP/ my /WSP/ mind the property of a glad Giver. /P/ Ever /WSP/ A glad Giver takes but little heed of the thing that he gives, but /SP/ all /WSP/ his desire, and all his intent is to please him and solace him to whom he gives it. And if the receiver take the gift /W/ gladly /S/ highly /WSP/ and thankfully, then the courteous Giver sets at nought all his cost and all his travail, for the joy and delight that he has. For he has pleased and solaced him whom he loves. /WSPA/ Plenteously, and fully was this showed /A/ to me. /SPA/ Think also wisely of the greatness of this word, /A/ 'That /SPA/ Ever /A/ I suffered Passion for you'. /PA/ For in /W/ it /SPA/ that /A/ word /SPA/ was showed a high knowing of love /A/ and delight /WSPA/ that he has in our salvation /SP/ with manifold joys /SP/ that follow of the Passion of Christ. One is that he joys that he has done it in deed. And he shall no more suffer. Another, that he brought us up into heaven and made us for to be his crown and /P/ his /SP/ endless bliss. /S/ Another is that he has therewith bought us from endless pains of Hell.
The Tenth Revelation /S/ is that our Lord Jesus shows in love his blessed heart even cloven in two, enjoying. /SP/ The Twenty-Fourth Chapter./W/Also /S/Then /WSP/
With a /WS/ glad /P/ good /WSP/ cheer, /A/{Full merrily and gladly /WSPA/ our /P/ good /WSPA/ Lord looked into his side, and beheld /WSP/ enjoying, and with his sweet looking he led forth the understanding of his creature by the same wound into his side within. And /WP/there /SP/ then /WS/ he showed a fair delectable place and large enough for all mankind that shall be saved to rest in peace and in love. And therewith he brought to mind his dearworthy blood and precious water which he let pour /WS/ all /WSP/ out for love. And with the sweet beholding he showed his blissful heart even cloven in two. And with this sweet enjoying he showed to my understanding in part the blessed Godhead /WP/ as much as he would that time, strengthening /S/ stirring then the /WP/ poor /S/ pure /WSP/ soul to understand, as it may be said. That is to mean the endless love, that was without beginning and is and shall be ever. And with this our good Lord said full blissfully, /A/ and said this word, /WSPA/ 'Lo, how I love you'. As if he had said, /A/ 'My child, if you cannot look in my Godhead, see here. How I let open my side, and my heart is cloven in two and lets out blood and water, all that is in it, and this delights me and so will it delight you'. /WSP/ 'My darling, behold and see your /WS/ Lord your God who is your Maker and your endless joy. /WP/ See your own brother, your /W/ Sovereign /P/ Saviour, /WP/ my child, behold. /WSP/ See what liking and bliss I have in your salvation. And for my love joy now with me'. And also for more understanding this blessed word was said, /P/ 'Lo, how I love you'. /WP/As if he had said, /WSP/ 'Behold and see that I loved you so much/

before I died for you, that I would die for you, and now I have died for you and suffered willfully that I may. And now is all my bitter pain and all my hard travail turned to endless joy and bliss to me. And to you. How should it now be, that you should pray anything of me that delights me, but if I should full gladly grant it to you. For my delight is your holiness and your endless joy and bliss with me. This is the understanding simply as I can say of this blessed word, 'Lo, how I /WP/ love/S/ loved /WSP/ you'. /WSPA/ This showed our good Lord for to make us glad and merry. /SP/
The Eleventh Revelation /S/is a high ghostly showing of his Mother./SP/ The Twenty-Fifth Chapter. /SPA/
And with this /S/ same /SPA/ cheer of mirth and joy, our good Lord looked down on the right side. And brought to my mind where our Lady stood in the time of his Passion, and said, 'Will you see her?' /SP/ And in this sweet word as if he had said, 'I know well you would see my blessed mother, for after myself she is the highest joy that I might show you and most pleasing and honour to me. And most she is desired to be seen of /P/ all /SP/ my blessed creatures'. And for the high marvelous singular love that he has to this sweet Maiden, his blessed Mother, our Lady Saint Mary, he showed her /S/ highly enjoying /P/ bliss and joy, /SP/ as by the meaning of these sweet words. As if he said, 'Will you see how I love her, that you may joy with me in the love that I have in her and she in me?' And also to more understanding of this sweet word our Lord God speaks to all mankind who shall be saved. As it were all to one person as if he said, 'Will you see in her how you are loved? For your love I made her so high, so noble and so worthy, and this delights me. And so will I that it does you'. For after himself she is the most blessed sight. But here I am not taught to long to see her bodily presence while I am here. But the virtues of her blessed soul, her truth, her wisdom, her charity, whereby I may learn to know myself and reverently dread my God. And when our good Lord had showed this /A/ and with the same cheer and mirth he looked down on the right side and brought to my mind where our Lady stood in the time of the Passion /SPA/ and said this word, 'Will you see her?', /SPA/ I answered and said, 'Yea, good Lord, thanks. Yea, good Lord, if it be your will'. Often I prayed this and I thought I would have seen her in bodily /S/ presence, /PA/ likeness /SPA/ but I saw her not so, and Jesus in that word showed me a ghostly sight of her. Right as I had seen her before, little and simple, /PA/ right /SPA/ so he showed her then high and noble and glorious, and pleasing to him above all creatures. And /A/ so /SPA/ he will that it be known that all those who delight in him should delight in her /AS/ and in the delight that he has in her and she in him. /SP/ And to more understanding he showed this example: As if a man love a creature singularly above all creatures, he will make all /P/ other /SP/ creatures/

to love and to like that creature whom he loves so much. /SPA/ And in this word that Jesus said, 'Will you see her?', I thought it was the most delightful word that he might have given me of her with the ghostly Showing that he gave me of her. For our Lord showed me nothing in special, but our Lady Saint Mary and her he showed /A/ me /SPA/ three times. The First was as she /S/ was pregnant /PA/ conceived. /SPA/ The Second was as she was in her sorrows under the Cross. The third is as she is now in delight, worship and joy. /SP/
The Twelfth Revelation/S/is that the Lord our God is all sovereign being./SP/ The Twenty-Sixth Chapter. /SPAU/
And after this our Lord showed him /A/ to me /SPAU/ more glorified as to my sight, than I saw him before. Wherein I was taught that /SPU/ our soul shall never have rest till it comes to him knowing that he is fullness of joy, /A/ each contemplative soul to whom it is given to look for and to seek God shall see her, and pass into God by contemplation. And after this teaching, /SPAU/ homely and courteously blissful and true life. Our Lord Jesus often times said 'I it am, /SP/ I it am, I it am, /SPAU/ who is highest, I it am whom you love, I it am whom you like, I it am whom you serve, I it am whom you long for, I it am whom you desire, I it am whom you mean, /SPA/ I it am who is all, /SPAU/ I it am whom holy Church preaches and teaches you, I am who showed myself /PAU/ before /S/ here /SPAU/ to you'. /SPU/ The number of the words passes my wit and all my understanding and all my might, and it is the highest as to my sight. For therein is comprehended I cannot tell, but the joy that I saw in the Showing of them passes all that the heart /S/ may will /PU/ can think , /SPU/ and soul may desire. /SPAU/ And therefore the words be not declared here, but every man, after the grace that God gives him in understanding and loving, receives them in our Lord's meaning.
The Thirteenth Revelation /S/ is that our Lord God wills that we have great regard to all his deeds that he has done in the great nobleness of making all things, and how sin is not known but by the pain. /SPU/The Twenty-Eighth Chapter. /SPAU/
After this the Lord brought to my mind the longing that I had to him before. And I saw that nothing hindered me but sin. /SPA/ And so I beheld generally in us all. /SPAU/ And I thought if sin had not been, we should all have been clean and like to our Lord as he made us. And thus in my folly before this time, often I wondered why, by the great foreseeing wisdom of God, /SPU/ the beginning of /SPAU/ sin was not stopped. For then thought I all should have been well. This stirring /U/ and thought in my mind I should have foresaken and not have yielded to it /SPA/ was much to foresake. /SPAU/And nevertheless I made mourning and sorrow therefore, without /SPA/ reason and /SPAU/ discretion, /A/ of full great pride. /SPAU/ But Jesus, who in this Vision informed me of all that I needed, /A/ I say not that I need more teaching, for our Lord, with the Showing of this, has left me to holy Church, and I am hungry and thirsty and needy and sinful and frail and willfully submit myself to the teaching of holy Church with all my even-Christians to the end of my life. He /SP/ answered in this word and said, 'Sin is needful, /SPU/ but all shall be well. /SP/ And all shall be well. And all /S/ manner of /SP/ thing shall be well'. /SPAU/ In this /SPU/ naked /SPAU/ word, 'Sin', our Lord brought/

to my mind generally all that is not good. /SPA/ And the shameful despite and the utter /S/ noughting /P/ tribulation /SP/ that he bare for us, in this life, and his dying and all the pains and passions of all his creatures, ghostly and bodily. For we be all in part /SA/ noughted /P/troubled /SPA/ and we shall be /SA/ noughted /P/ troubled /SPA/ following our Master Jesus, till we be fully purged, /SA/that is to say, /SPA/ till we be fully /SA/ noughted /P/ purged /SPA/ of our /A/ own /SPA/ deadly flesh, and of all our inward affections, which are not very good. And the beholding of this with all pains that ever were or ever shall be. /SP/ And with all these I understand the Passion of Christ, for the most pain. And overpassing. /SPA/ And all this was showed /A/ me /SPA/ in a touch, and readily passed over into comfort. For our good Lord would not that the soul were afraid of this ugly sight. But I saw not sin. For I believe it has no manner of substance nor any part of being, nor might it be known but by the pain that it causes. And this pain, it is something as to my sight for a time. For it purges and makes us to know ourself and ask mercy. For the Passion of our Lord is comfort to us against all this. And so is his blessed will. /SP/ And for the tender love that our good Lord has /SPA/ to all who shall be saved, he comforts readily and sweetly, /SP/ meaning thus, 'It is true that sin is the cause of all this pain', /A/ by his words and says, /SPA/ 'But all shall be well, /S/ and all shall be well, /SPA/ and all manner thing shall be well'. These words were /S/ said /PA/ showed /SPA/ full tenderly, showing no manner of blame to me nor to none who shall be saved. Then were it a great unnaturalness /PA/ of me /SPA/ to blame or wonder on God for my sin, since he blames not me for sin. /SP/ And in these same words I saw a marvelous high secret hid in God, which privity /S/ he shall openly /P/ and shall be /SP/ known to us in heaven. In which knowing we shall truly see the cause why he suffered sin to come. In which sight we shall endlessly joy /S/ in our Lord God.
How the Children of Salvation shall be shaken in sorrows, but Christ enjoys with compassion, and a remedy against tribulation. /SPU/ The Twenty-Eighth Chapter. /SPAU/
Thus I saw how Christ has compassion on us, for the cause of sin. /SPA/ And right as I was before in the Passion of Christ fufilled with pain and compassion, like in this I was fulfilled in part with compassion of all my even-Christians, /SPU/ for /P/ full well he loved /SU/ that well-beloved /SPU/ people who shall be saved. /A/ Then I saw that each natural compassion that man has of his even-Christian with charity, that is Christ in him. /SPU/ That is to say, God's servants, holy Church, shall be shaken in sorrow and anguish and tribulation in this world, as men shake a cloth in the wind. And as to this our Lord answered /PU/ showing /SPU/ in this manner, 'A great thing shall I make hereof in heaven of endless worship and everlasting joy'. Yea, so /SPU/ far as I saw that our Lord joys of the tribulations of his servants, with /PU/ pity /S/ ruth and /SPU/ compassion. To each person whom he loves to bring to his bliss,/

he leaves upon them something that is no lack /U/ that is to say, some affliction or tribulation /SPU/ in his sight, whereby they are /S/ blamed /PU/ humbled /SPU/ and despised in this world, scorned, /PU/ mocked /S/ struck and cast out. And this he does to stop the harm that they should take of the pomp and /P/ of the pride and /SP/ the vainglory of this wretched life. And make their way ready to come to heaven /S/ and exalt them /SPU/ in his bliss lasting without end. /SP/ For he says, /SPU/  'I shall all break you of your vain affections and your vicious pride and after that I shall gather you together and make you mild and meek, clean and holy, by oneing to me'. And then I saw that each natural compassion that man has on his even-Christian with charity, it is Christ in him. /SP/ That same noughting that was showed /U/ whose love to man made him to esteem little of all the pains he suffered /SPU/ in his Passion, was showed again here in this compassion, wherein were two kinds of understandings in our Lord's meaning. The one was the bliss that we are /S/ bought /PU/ brought /SPU/ to wheren he will be enjoyed. That other is for comfort in our pain. For he will that we know that it shall all be turned to worship and /U/ our /SPU/ profit by virtue of his Passion. And that we understand that we do not suffer alone, but with him and see him our ground. And that we see his pains, and his /PU/ tribulation /S/ noughting, /SPU/ pass so far all that we may suffer that it may not be fully thought. And the beholding of this will save us from grouching and despair in the feeling of our pains, and if we see truly that our sin deserves it, yet his love excuses us. And of his great courtesy he does away all our blame, and he holds us in ruth and pity as innocent and unloathsome children.
/S/ Adam's sin was greatest, but the satisfaction for it is more pleasing to God than ever was the sin harmful. /SP/ The Twenty-Ninth Chapter. /SPA/
But in this /SP/ I stood,  /A/ you shall study, /SPA/ beholding generally grieving and mourning, saying thus to our Lord in my meaning with full great dread, 'Ah, good Lord, how might all be well for the great /S/ hurt /PA/ harm /SPA/ that is come by sin to the creatures'. And here I desired as I dared, to have some more open declaring, wherewith I might be eased in this. And to this our blessed Lord answered full meekly and with full lovely cheer, and showed /A/ me /SPA/ that Adam's sin was the most harm that ever was done or ever shall be to the world's end.

Della Robbia in terra cotta of God creating Eve from sleeping Adam's side, Adam meaning 'Everyman', 'Everywoman', 'red', 'clay'

Adam and Eve lose Paradise, Très Riches Heures de Jean, duc de Berri

And also he showed /A/ me /SPA/ that this is as openly known in all holy Church on earth. Furthermore he taught /A/ me /SPA/ that I should behold the glorious Satisfaction. For this Assize-making is more pleasing to /S/ God /AP/ the blessed Godhead /SPA/ and more worshipful for man's salvation without comparison, than ever was the sin of Adam harmful. Then means our blessed Lord thus, in this teaching, that we should pay heed to this, 'For since I have made well the most harm, then it is my will/

that you know thereby that I shall make well, all that is less'.
/S/How we should joy and trust in our Saviour Jesus, not presuming to know his privy counsel. /SPU/ The Thirtieth Chapter. /SPA/
He gave me understanding of two parties. That one part is our Saviour and our Salvation. This blessed part is open and clear and fair and light and plenteous for all mankind that is of good will and shall be, is comprehended in this part. Hereto are we /SP/ bound /A/ bidden /SPA/ of God and drawn and /PA/ counselled /S/ enabled /SPA/ and taught inwardly by the holy Ghost and outwardly by the holy Church in the same grace. /SPAU/In this will our Lord that we be occupied in joying in him, for he enjoys in us. And the more plenteously that we take of this with reverence and meekness, the more thanks we deserve of him and the more help to ourself. And thus may we /SA/ say /PU/ see /SPAU/ enjoying, 'Our part is our Lord'. That other is hid and stored from us, that is to say all that is beside our salvation. For it is our Lord's Privy Counsel, /SPA/ and it belongs to the Royal Lordship of God to have his privy counsel in peace, /SPA/ and it belongs to his servant for obedience and reverence, not to know his counsel /SP/ well. /SPAU/Our Lord has pity and compassion on us, for that some creatures make them so busy therein. And I am secure if we knew how much we should please him and ease ourself to believe it, we would. The saints who be in heaven, they will to know nothing, but what our Lord will show them. And also their charity, and their desire is ruled after the will of our Lord. And thus ought we to will /S/ not /SPAU/ like to them /A/ to him. /SPAU/ Then shall we will nor desire nothing but the will of our Lord, /SPU/ like as they do /A/ as he does. /SPAU/ For we are all one in God's meaning. And here I was taught that we shall trust and enjoy only in our Saviour, blissful Jesus, /A/ and trust in him /SPAU/ for all things.


Indices to Umiltà Website's Essays on Julian:


Influences on Julian
Her Self
Her Contemporaries
Her Manuscript Texts
with recorded readings of them
About Her Manuscript Texts
After Julian, Her Editors
Julian in our Day

Publications related to Julian:


Saint Bride and Her Book: Birgitta of Sweden's Revelations Translated from Latin and Middle English with Introduction, Notes and Interpretative Essay. Focus Library of Medieval Women. Series Editor, Jane Chance. xv + 164 pp. Revised, republished,  Boydell and Brewer, 1997. Republished, Boydell and Brewer, 2000. ISBN 0-941051-18-8

To see an example of a page inside with parallel text in Middle English and Modern English, variants and explanatory notes, click here. Index to this book at http://www.umilta.net/julsismelindex.html

Julian of Norwich. Showing of Love: Extant Texts and Translation. Edited. Sister Anna Maria Reynolds, C.P. and Julia Bolton Holloway. Florence: SISMEL Edizioni del Galluzzo (Click on British flag, enter 'Julian of Norwich' in search box), 2001. Biblioteche e Archivi 8. XIV + 848 pp. ISBN 88-8450-095-8.

To see inside this book, where God's words are in red, Julian's in black, her editor's in grey, click here. 

Julian of Norwich. Showing of Love. Translated, Julia Bolton Holloway. Collegeville: Liturgical Press; London; Darton, Longman and Todd, 2003. Amazon ISBN 0-8146-5169-0/ ISBN 023252503X. xxxiv + 133 pp. Index.

To view sample copies, actual size, click here.

Julian of Norwich, Showing of Love, Westminster Text, translated into Modern English, set in William Morris typefont, hand bound with marbled paper end papers within vellum or marbled paper covers, in limited, signed edition. A similar version available in Italian translation. To order, click here.

'Colections' by an English Nun in Exile: Bibliothèque Mazarine 1202. Ed. Julia Bolton Holloway, Hermit of the Holy Family. Analecta Cartusiana 119:26. Eds. James Hogg, Alain Girard, Daniel Le Blévec. Salzburg: Institut für Anglistik und Amerikanistik Universität Salzburg, 2006.

Anchoress and Cardinal: Julian of Norwich and Adam Easton OSB. Analecta Cartusiana 35:20 Spiritualität Heute und Gestern. Salzburg: Institut für Anglistik und Amerikanistik Universität Salzburg, 2008. ISBN 978-3-902649-01-0. ix + 399 pp. Index. Plates.

Teresa Morris. Julian of Norwich: A Comprehensive Bibliography and Handbook. Preface, Julia Bolton Holloway. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 2010. x + 310 pp.  ISBN-13: 978-0-7734-3678-7; ISBN-10: 0-7734-3678-2. Maps. Index.

Fr Brendan Pelphrey. Lo, How I Love Thee: Divine Love in Julian of Norwich. Ed. Julia Bolton Holloway. Amazon, 2013. ISBN 978-1470198299


Julian among the Books: Julian of Norwich's Theological Library. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2016. xxi + 328 pp. VII Plates, 59 Figures. ISBN (10): 1-4438-8894-X, ISBN (13) 978-1-4438-8894-3.

Mary's Dowry; An Anthology of Pilgrim and Contemplative Writings/ La Dote di Maria:Antologie di Testi di Pellegrine e Contemplativi. Traduzione di Gabriella Del Lungo Camiciotto. Testo a fronte, inglese/italiano. Analecta Cartusiana 35:21 Spiritualität Heute und Gestern. Salzburg: Institut für Anglistik und Amerikanistik Universität Salzburg, 2017. ISBN 978-3-903185-07-4. ix + 484 pp.

To donate to the restoration by Roma of Florence's formerly abandoned English Cemetery and to its Library click on our Aureo Anello Associazione:'s PayPal button: